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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      28 January 2007, Volume 23 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Research Articles
    Hot Forging of Nitrogen Alloyed Duplex Stainless Steels
    P.Ch, ramohan, S.S.Mohamed Nazirudeen, S.S.Ramakrishnan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 0-117. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (8373KB)
    Duplex stainless steels are gaining global importance because of the need for a high strength corrosion resistant material. Three compositions of this group were selected with three different nitrogen contents viz, 0.15 wt pct (alloy 1), 0.23 wt pct (alloy 2) and 0.32 wt pct (alloy 3). The steels were melted in a high frequency induction furnace and hot forged to various reductions from 16% to 62%. In this work, the effect of hot forging on the ferrite content, hardness, yield strength, impact strength and grain orientation (texture) were studied. Fracture analysis on all the forged specimens using SEM reveals that a size reduction of 48% results in maximum ductility and impact strength as well as minimal ferrite content and grain size. Thus the mechanical properties are found to have a direct correlation to ferrite content and grain size. The highest impact strength was observed in specimens with the smallest grain size, which was observed in specimens forged to 48% reduction in size.
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    Magnetic Nanocapsules
    Zhidong ZHANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 1-14. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (6949KB)
    A brief review on recent advances in the area of the magnetic nanocapsules is given. The most applicable nanoencapsulation procedures are introduced, which include: (1) physical techniques such as arc-discharge, evaporating, etc.; (2) chemical techniques such as chemical vapor deposition, solid-state reactions, etc. The structure and magnetic properties of various nanocapsules with different core/shell structures are studied in details, for possibly applications in magnetic recording, magnetic refrigerator, magnetic fluids, superconductors and medicine.
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    Application of Rare Earths in Thermal Barrier Coating Materials
    Xueqiang CAO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 15-35. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (8818KB)
    Rare earths are a series of minerals with special properties that make them essential for applications including miniaturized electronics, computer hard disks, display panels, missile guidance, pollution controlling catalysts, H2-storage and other advanced materials. The use of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has the potential to extend the working temperature and the life of a gas turbine by providing a layer of thermal insulation between the metallic substrate and the hot gas. Yttria (Y2O3), as one of the most important rare earth oxides, has already been used in the typical TBC material YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia). In the development of the TBC materials, especially in the latest ten years, rare earths have been found to be more and more important. All the new candidates of TBC materials contain a large quantity of rare earths, such as R2Zr2O7 (R=La, Ce, Nd, Gd), CeO2-YSZ, RMeAl11O19 (R=La, Nd; Me=Mg, Ca, Sr) and LaPO4. The concept of double-ceramiclayer coatings based on the rare earth materials and YSZ is effective for the improvement of the thermal shock life of TBCs at high temperature.
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    980 nm High Power Semiconductor Laser Stacked Arrays with Non-absorbing Window
    Xin GAO, Baoxue BO, Yi QU, Jing ZHANG, Hui LI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 36-38. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (575KB)
    980 nm InGaAs/GaAs separate confinement heterostructure (SCH) strained quantum well (QW) laser with non-absorbing facets was fabricated by using thermal treatment. Microchannel coolers with a five-layer thin oxygen-free copper plate structure were designed and fabricated through thermal bonding in hydrogen ambient. The highest CW (continuous wave) output power of 200 W for 5-bar arrays packaged by microchannel coolers was presented.
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    Effect of a Magnetic Field on the Preparation of Silver Nanowires Using Solid Electrolyte Thin Films
    Haifei YAO, Jialin SUN, Wei LIU, Hongsan SUN
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 39-42. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (619KB)
    The effect of an external magnetic field on the preparation of silver nanowires was studied. The silver nanowires were synthesized using solid electrolyte RbAg4I5 thin films by applying both a direct current (DC) electric field and a magnetic field. The RbAg4I5 thin films, which were prepared by deposition at room temperature and atmospheric pressure on a NaCl substrate, were used for the transfer of Ag+ ions between two Ag electrodes during the preparation process. When only the DC electric field is applied, the silver ions migrate toward the cathode. On the edge of the silver film at the cathode the Ag+ ions congregate to form aligned nanowires. If the magnetic field is also applied perpendicular to the DC electric field, the morphology of the nanowires can be controlled by rotating the sample in the magnetic field. Experimental results show that the growth of the silver nanowires is determined by the Ag+ ionic flux.
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    Synthesis of Vanadium Nitride by a One Step Method
    Sansan YU, Nianxin FU, Feng GAO, Zhitong SUI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 43-46. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (892KB)
    Vanadium nitrides were prepared via one step method of carbothermal reduction and nitridation of vanadium trioxide. Thermalgravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction were used to determine the reaction paths of vanadium carbide, namely the following sequential reaction: V2O3→V8C7 in higher temperature stage, the rule of vanadium nitride synthesized was established, and defined conditions of temperature for the production of the carbides and nitrides were determined. Vanadium oxycarbide may consist in the front process of carbothermal reduction of vanadium trioxide. In one step method for vanadium nitride by carbothermal reduction and nitridation of vanadium trioxide, the nitridation process is simultaneous with the carbothermal reduction. A one-step mechanism of the carbothermal reduction with simultaneous nitridation leaded to a lower terminal temperature in nitridation process for vanadium nitride produced, compared with that of carbothermal reduction process without nitridation. The grain size and shape of vanadium nitride were uniform, and had the shape of a cube. The one step method combined vacuum carborization and nitridation (namely two step method) into one process. It simplified the technological process and decreased the costs.
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    Research Articles
    Numerical Simulation of Solidification Process on Single Crystal Ni-Based Superalloy Investment Castings
    Jing YU, Qingyan XU, Kai CUI, Baicheng LIU, Akihiko KIMATSUKA, Yasunori KUROKI, Atsushi HIRATA
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 47-54. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (8181KB)
    Bridgman directional solidification of investment castings is a key technology for the production of reliable and highly efficient gas turbine blades. In this paper, a mathematical model for three-dimensional (3D) simulation of solidification process of single crystal investment castings was developed based on basic heat transfer equations. Complex heat radiation among the multiple blade castings and the furnace wall was considered in the model. Temperature distribution and temperature gradient in superalloy investment castings of single blade and multiple ones were investigated, respectively. The calculated cooling curves were compared with the experimental results and agreed well with the latter. It is indicated that the unsymmetrical temperature distribution and curved liquid-solid interface caused by the circle distribution of multiple turbine blades are probably main reasons why the stray grain and other casting defects occur in the turbine blade.
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    Preparation and Characterization of the Modified Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Hollow Fibre Microfiltration Membrane
    Laizhou SONG, Zunju ZHANG, Shizhe SONG, Zhiming GAO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 55-60. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (541KB)
    A novel thermally induced graft polymerization technique was used to modify a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fibre microfiltration membrane. An artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to optimize the prepared condition of the membrane. The optimized dosing of acrylic acid (AA), acrylamide (AM), N, N′-methylenebisacrylamide (NMBA) and potassium persulphate (KSP) designed by ANN was that AA was 40.63 ml/L; AM acted as 6.25 g/L; NMBA was 1.72 g/L and KSP was 1.5 g/L, respectively. The thermal stability of the PVDF modified hollow fibre membrane (PVDF-PAA) was investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The polycrystallinity of the PVDF-PAA membrane was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The complex formation of the modified membrane was ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The morphology of the PVDF-PAA membrane was studied by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The surface compositions of the membrane were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adsorption capacity of Cu2+ ion on the PVDF-PAA hollow fibre membrane was also investigated.
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    Failure Modes of Lead Free Solder Bumps Formed by Induction Spontaneous Heating Reflow
    Mingyu LI, Hongbo XU, Jongmyung KIM, Hongbae KIM
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 61-67. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2786KB)
    The shear failure modes and respective failure mechanism of Sn3.5Ag and Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu lead-free solder bumping on Au/Ni/Cu metallization formed by induction spontaneous heating reflow process have been investigated through the shear test after aging at 120±C for 0, 1, 4, 9 and 16 d. Different typical shear failure behaviors have been found in the loading curves (shear force vs displacement). From the results of interfacial morphology analysis of the fracture surfaces and cross-sections, two main typical failure modes have been identified. The probabilities of the failure modes occurrence are inconsistent when the joints were aged for different times. The evolution of the brittle Ni3Sn4 and Cu-Ni-Au-Sn layers and the grains coarsening of the solder bulk are the basic reasons for the change of shear failure modes.
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    Influence of Thermal Cycling on the Microstructure and Shear Strength of Sn3.5Ag0.75Cu and Sn63Pb37 Solder Joints on Au/Ni Metallization
    Hongtao CHEN, Chunqing WANG, Mingyu LI, Dewen TIAN
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 68-72. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (984KB)
    The influence of thermal cycling on the microstructure and joint strength of Sn3.5Ag0.75Cu (SAC) and Sn63Pb37 (SnPb) solder joints was investigated. SAC and SnPb solder balls were soldered on 0.1 and 0.9 μm Au finished metallization, respectively. After 1000 thermal cycles between -40℃ and 125℃, a very thin intermetallic compound (IMC) layer containing Au, Sn, Ni, and Cu formed at the interface between SAC solder joints and underneath metallization with 0.1 μm Au finish, and (Au, Ni, Cu)Sn4 and a very thin Au-Sn-Ni-Cu IMC layer formed between SAC solder joints and underneath metallization with 0.9 μm Au finish. For SnPb solder joints with 0.1 μm Au finish, a thin (Ni, Cu, Au)3Sn4 IMC layer and a Pb-rich layer formed below and above the (Au, Ni)Sn4 IMC, respectively. Cu diffused through Ni layer and was involved into the IMC formation process. Similar interfacial microstructure was also found for SnPb solder joints with 0.9 μm Au finish. The results of shear test show that the shear strength of SAC solder joints is consistently higher than that of SnPb eutectic solder joints during thermal cycling.
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    Numerical Modeling of Friction Stir Welding Process by Using Rate-dependent Constitutive Model
    Hongwu ZHANG, Zhao ZHANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 73-80. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (7128KB)
    Rate-dependent constitutive model was used to simulate the friction stir welding process. The effect of the viscosity coefficient and the process parameters on the material behaviors and the stress distributions around the pin were studied. Results indicate that the stress in front of the pin is larger than that behind the pin. The difference between the radial/circumferential stress in front of the pin and that behind it becomes smaller when the material gets closer to the top surface. This difference increases with increasing the viscosity coefficient and becomes smaller when the welding speed decreases. The variation of the angular velocity does not significantly affect the difference.
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    Effect of a Trace of Bi and Ni on the Microstructure and Wetting Properties of Sn-Zn-Cu Lead-Free Solder
    Haitao MA, Haiping XIE, Lai WANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 81-84. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (807KB)
    The microstructure and melting behavior of Sn-9Zn-2Cu (SZC) lead-free solder with 3 wt pct Bi and various amount of Ni additions were studied. The wetting properties and the interfacial reaction of Sn-Zn-Cu with Cu substrate were also examined. The results indicated that the addition of 3 wt pct Bi could decrease the melting point of the solder and Ni would refine the microstructure and the rod-shape Cu5Zn8 phase changed into square-shape (Cu, Ni)5Zn8 phase. The addition of Bi, Ni greatly improved the wettability of SZC solder. In addition, the interfacial phase of the solders/Cu joint was typical planar Cu5Zn8 in SZC-3Bi-1Ni alloy.
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    Microstructural Evolution and Cracking of Pb-free Ball Grid Array Assemblies under Thermal Cycling
    Wei WANG, Zhongguang WANG, Aiping XIAN, Jianku SHANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 85-91. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2031KB)
    Two kinds of CBGA (ceramic ball grid array) assemblies were made by reflow soldering process using two different Pb-free solders. Microstructural evolution and cracks induced by thermal cycling in CBGA assemblies were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and finite element method (FEM). Before thermal cycling, intermetallic compounds (IMCs) Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn were observed at the solder interface between Cu and Ag metallizations, respectively. After thermal cycling, another IMC Cu3Sn was observed near the Cu pad in both two assemblies and the layers of Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn became thicker. As a result of thermal cycling, cyclic stress and strain were accumulated in the solder joint leading to fatigue cracking. Both experiments and FEM revealed that cracks preferred to initiate at the corner of each solder joint. Multi-modes of the crack propagation were found in the two assemblies. Based on Coffin-Manson equation, the thermal fatigue life was calculated and the predicted life showed good agreement with the experimental results.
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    Interface Structure and Formation Mechanism of Directly-Bonded Joints of Silicated Graphite to Fe-based Alloys
    Jichun CHEN, Chuanyong HAO, Jinsong ZHANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 92-96. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2264KB)
    Commercially available 000Cr30Mo2 ferritic stainless steel and 4J33 ferromagnetic expansion alloy were directly bonded to silicated graphite at 1180-1200℃ and 1100-1150℃, respectively. Interfacial microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that transient liquid-phase present during bonding promoted the interfacial reactions during bonding. Plenty of brittle chromium carbides, such as (Cr, Fe)7C3 and (Cr2.5Fe4.3Mo0.1)C3, were observed in 000Cr30Mo2/silicated graphite joints. Besides, transverse cracks were also found. In case of 4J33/silicated graphite system, well bonded joints free of defects were obtained.
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    Effects of Alloying Elements on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Heavy Section Ductile Cast Iron
    G.S.Cho, K.H.Choe, K.W.Lee, A.Ikenaga
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 97-101. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1032KB)
    The effects of alloying elements on the as-cast microstructures and mechanical properties of heavy section ductile cast iron were investigated to develop press die material having high strength and high ductility. Measurements of ultimate tensile strength, 0.2% proof strength, elongation and unnotched Charpy impact energy are presented as a function of alloy amounts within 0.25 to 0.75 wt pct range. Hardness is measured on the broken tensile specimens. The small additions of Mo, Cu, Ni and Cr changed the as-cast mechanical properties owing to the different as-cast matrix microstructures. The ferrite matrix of Mo and Ni alloyed cast iron exhibits low strength and hardness as well as high elongation and impact energy. The increase in Mo and Ni contents developed some fractions of pearlite structures near the austenite eutectic cell boundaries, which caused the elongation and impact energy to drop in a small range. Adding Cu and Cr elements rapidly changed the ferrite matrix into pearlite matrix, so strength and hardness were significantly increased. As more Mo and Cr were added, the size and fraction of primary carbides in the eutectic cell boundaries increased through the segregation of these elements into the intercellular boundaries.
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    Effects of Alloying Elements on the Volume Fraction of Ordered α2 Phase Precipitated in Ti-Al-Sn-Zr Alloys
    Jun ZHANG, Na PENG, Xinan WANG, Li LI, Qingjiang WANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 102-106. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2328KB)
    An ideal method has been established for calculating the precipitation ofα2 ordered phase in near-α titanium alloys based on the theory on the critical electron concentration for the precipitation of α2 ordered phase in near-α titanium alloys. With complete precipitation of α2 phase in near-α titanium alloys, the alloys can be considered to be composed of two parts: (1) the ®2 ordered phase with the stoichiometric atomic ratio of Ti3X; (2) the disorder solid solution with the critical composition in which the α2 ordered phase is just unable to precipitate. By using this method, the volume fractions of α2 ordered phase precipitated in Ti-Al, Ti-Sn, Ti-Al-Sn-Zr alloys with various Al, Sn and/or Zr contents have been calculated. The influences of Al and Sn on the precipitation of α2 ordered phase are discussed. The calculating results show substantial agreement with the experimental ones.
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    A Study on the Wear Behaviour of Dual Phase Steels
    V.Abouei, H.Saghafian, Sh.Kheir, ish, Kh.Ranjbar
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 107-110. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (5317KB)
    Dual phase (DP) steels containing four different amounts of martensite ranging from 43 vol. pct to 81 vol. pct have been developed from 0.2 wt pct carbon steel by intercritical heat treatment at a fixed temperature of 780℃ with varying holding times followed by water quenching. Dry sliding wear tests have been conducted on DP steels using a pin- on-disk machine under different normal loads of 61.3, 68.5, 75.7 and 82.6 N and at a constant sliding speed of 1.20 m/s. At these loads, the mechanism of wear is primarily delamination, which has been confirmed by SEM micrographs of subsurface and wear debris of samples. Wear properties have beenfound to improve with the increase in martensite volume fraction in dual phase steels.
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    Synthesis of High Purity SiC Powder for High-resistivity SiC Single Crystals Growth
    Li WANG, Xiaobu HU, Xiangang XU, Shouzheng JIANG, Lina NING, Minhua JIANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 118-122. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (588KB)
    High purity silicon carbide (SiC) powder was synthesized in-situ by chemical reaction between silicon and carbon powder. In order to ensure that the impurity concentration of the resulting SiC powder is suitable for high-resistivity SiC single crystal growth, the preparation technology of SiC powder is different from that of SiC ceramic. The influence of the shape and size of carbon particles on the morphology and phase composition of the obtained SiC powder were discussed. The phase composition and morphology of the products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the composition of resulting SiC by in-situ synthesis from Si/C mixture strongly depends on the nature of the carbon source, which corresponds to the particle size and shape, as well as the preparation temperature. In the experimental conditions, flake graphite is more suitable for the synthesis of SiC powder than activated carbon because of its relatively smaller particle size and flake shape, which make the conversion more complete. The major phase composition of the full conversion products is β-SiC, with traces of α-SiC. Glow discharge mass spectroscopy measurements indicated that SiC powder synthesized with this chemical reaction method can meet the purity demand for the growth of high-resistivity SiC single crystals.
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    Preparation and Characterization of Nucleus/Shell TiO2/HAP Complex Nanophotocatalyst
    Hongfei LIU, Xiaonong CHENG, Juan YANG, Xuehua YAN, Hebin SHI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 123-126. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (720KB)
    A rapid and more efficient method was developed to prepare nucleus/shell titania/hydroxyapatite (TiO2/HAP) complex nanophotocatalyst. Hydroxyapatite (5 μm) which had been dissolved with 0.1 mol/L HCl was formed on the surface of the nanosized anatase titania powders by increasing the pH value of the solution at 90℃ in the water bath for only several hours .The microstructure and morphology of the resulting sample were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The results indicated that nucleus/shell structural TiO2/HAP was formed in our experiments, and the thickness of the coating layer was about 5 nm. Photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange was utilized to test the photocatalysis of the resulting samples and the result was compared with that of pure anatase titania powders (about 20 nm). It was shown that the photocatalytic activity of the sample was not decreased due to the coating of HAP.
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    Microanalysis on the Hydrogen Ion Irradiated 50 wt pct TiC-C Films
    Hui JIANG, Yaoguang LIU, Ningkang HUANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 127-130. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (589KB)
    The 50 wt pct TiC-C films were prepared on stainless steel substrates by using a technique of ion beam mixing. These films were irradiated by hydrogen ion beam with a dose of 1×1018 ions/cm2 and an energy of 5 keV. Microanalysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were used to analyze the films before and after hydrogen ion irradiation and to study the mechanism of hydrogen resistance.
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    Effect of CuO Addition on the Sintering Behavior and Electrical Conductivity of 3Y-TZP
    Ahmed A.Hassan, Omar Abdelal A., S.M.EL-Hout
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 131-134. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (3180KB)
    Yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP) doped with CuO was prepared, to get two compositions, 0.3 and 1 mole fraction CuO, respectively. The dilatometric study of the samples showed sintering to be improved for the samples doped with 0.3 mole fraction CuO, and to be deteriorated for the samples doped with 1 mole fraction CuO. The 1 mole fraction CuO doped 3Y-TZP showed higher tetragonal/monoclinic phase transformation which was accompanied by grain growth. The electrical conductivity decreased with the addition of CuO.
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    Vibrating Breakup of Jet for Uniform Metal Droplets
    Shengdong GAO, Yingxue YAO, Chengsong CUI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 135-138. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (575KB)
    Uniform droplet formation from capillary stream breakup provides promising opportunities for many applications such as solder balls manufacturing, circuit board printing and rapid prototype manufacturing. In this study an apparatus capable of making monosize metal spheres by vibrating breakup has been developed. The droplets were electrically charged to avoid collision and merging with one another during flight. As a result, uniformly sized tin powders (180 ¹m in diameter) were obtained after cooling and solidification.
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    Nafion/polypyrrole and Nafion/DMSO Organic Coatings for Magnesium Protection
    Renguo SONG, Xiaohua ZHENG, Carsten Blawert, Wolfgang Dietzel
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 139-141. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (3919KB)
    Nafion/polypyrrole and Nafion/Dimethysulfoxid (DMSO) organic coatings were prepared on the surface of pure magnesium by simple immersion and heat treatment. The morphologies and corrosion resistance of the organic coatings were investigated by using optical microscopy and electrochemical corrosion testing, respectively. It is shown that Nafion/polypyrrole organic coatings resulted in the corrosion resistance of magnesium decreasing; while Nafion/DMSO organic coatings can effectively improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium. Also, the corrosion resistance increased with the thickness of the Nafion/DMSO organic coating increased.
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    Electrochemical Behavior of CoSb3-based Electrodes Using Binary PAni/PVDF Binder
    Jian XIE, Xinbing ZHAO, Gaoshao CAO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2007, 23 (01): 142-144. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (251KB)
    The polyaniline (PAni)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hybrid was served as a novel binder for CoSb3-based alloy electrode. The effect of PAni content on the electrochemical performances of the alloy electrode was investigated. It was found that the CoSb3 electrode using the binary PAni/PVDF binder exhibits higher reversible capacity than that using the single PVDF binder, especially in the initial cycles. As a result, the PAni/PVDF hybrid could be a promising binder for the alloy electrode.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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