Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
Impact factor:6.155

The journal has been awarded the excellent periodical in China, and its articles are covered by SCI, EI, CA, SA, JST, RJ, CSA, MA, EMA, AIA etc., PASCAL web. ISI web of Science,SCOPUS.

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      20 June 2017, Volume 33 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    In-situ formation of Ni-Al intermetallics-coated graphite/Al composite in a cold-sprayed coating and its high temperature tribological behaviors
    Huang Chunjie, Li Wenya, Planche Marie-Pierre, Liao Hanlin, Montavon Ghislain
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (6): 507-515.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.01.026
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    In this study, cold spraying (CS) was used to deposit a mixture of nickel-coated graphite and 40 vol.% Al powder (Ni-Gr/Al) on a steel substrate aiming to effectively preserve a certain volume fraction of graphite in the deposited Ni-Gr/Al composite coating. The microstructure of the as-sprayed coating and the effect of post-spray heat-treatment (PSHT) temperatures on the in-situ formation of Ni-Al intermetallic phases in coating were studied. The tribological behaviors of the as-sprayed coating and the PSHTed coating under 450 °C were tested at 25 °C, while the as-sprayed coating was tested at 450 °C for comparison. As a result, the Ni-Gr particles showed a homogenous distribution in the coating. The multilayer Ni-Al intermetallics-coated graphite/Al composite coating was achieved in situ after the PSHT of 450 °C, where the graphite did decompose at 550 °C leaving big pores in the coating. The coefficients of friction (COF) of the CSed coating and the PSHTed coating were measured at 450 °C as well as 25 °C, which showed a similar tendency, much higher than that of the CSed coating tested at 25 °C. The lubrication phase (graphite) improved the formation of a graphite film during sliding friction and decreased the COF, while the hard Ni-Al intermetallic phases contributed to the increase of COF.

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    Effect of TiO2 Functionalization on Nano-Porous Silicon for Selective Alcohol Sensing at Room Temperature
    Dwivedi Priyanka, Dhanekar Saakshi, Das Samaresh, Chandra Sudhir
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (6): 516-522.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.10.010
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    Room temperature operated sensor for detection of alcohol vapours in low ppm range based on TiO2 functionalized nano-porous silicon (PSi) is demonstrated. The effect of functionalization by TiO2 on PSi is investigated using SEM, EDX, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and contact angle measurements. Sensing is accomplished by measuring change in resistance of the sensing layer using Cr-Au inter-digitated-electrode (IDE) structure formed on top of the functionalized PSi layer. The sensors were tested for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water vapours in the wide range of 5-500 ppm concentration at room temperature. Functionalization of the nanostructured PSi by sputter deposited TiO2 results in significant enhancement of sensitivity and inverse change in selectivity. PSi sensors have displayed strong response to water vapours whereas after functionalization, selective sensing to ethanol is depicted. Minimum detection by PSi sensors is portrayed at 100 ppm and that of functionalized sensors is at 10 ppm. Sensing mechanism is explained on the basis of surfaces and structures of both PSi and TiO2. This study incites the importance of surface treatment of PSi for tuning the sensing properties and is useful in the development of selective alcohol sensors.

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    Spectroscopic Understanding of Structural and Electrical Property Variations in Dopant-Free ZnO Films
    Kim Hyegyeong, Kim JiWoong, Lee Dooyong, Lee Won-Jae, Bae Jong-Seong, Lee Jaekwang, Park Sungkyun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (6): 523-526.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.10.009
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    Physical property variation in dopant-free ZnO films was investigated. Film annealing under various environments (O2, in-Air, N2 and vacuum) resulted in better crystallinity than in the as-grown film. In particular, the film annealed under the N2 environment showed better crystallinity and electrical properties than films annealed in other environments. Based on spectroscopic analysis, we found a correlation between physical (structural, electrical) and chemical properties: The crystallinity of ZnO films is closely related to Zn-O bonding, whereas carrier concentration is associated with VO (oxygen vacancy).

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    Characterization and Electrochemical Properties of Nanostructured Zr-Doped Anatase TiO2 Tubes Synthesized by Sol-Gel Template Route
    Opra Denis P., Gnedenkov Sergey V., Sinebryukhov Sergey L., Voit Elena I., Sokolov AlexanderA., Modin Evgeny B., Podgorbunsky Anatoly B., Sushkov Yury V., Zheleznov Veniamin V.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (6): 527-534.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.11.011
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    A series of nanostructured Zr-doped anatase TiO2 tubes with the Zr/Ti molar ratio of 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.09 were prepared by a sol-gel technology on a carbon fiber template. The electrochemical performance of Zr-doped anatase TiO2 as anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries was investigated and compared with undoped titania. Tests represented that after 35-fold charge/discharge cycling at C/10 the reversible capacity of Zr-doped titania (Zr/Ti = 0.03) reaches 135 mA h g-1, while the capacity of undoped titania (Zr/Ti = 0) yielded only 50 mA h g-1. Based on the results of the physicochemical investigation, three reasons of improving electrochemical performance of Zr-doped titania were suggested. According to the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, Zr4+ doping induces a decrease in nanoparticle size, which facilitates the Li+ diffusion. The Raman investigations show the more open structure of Zr-doped TiO2 as compared to undoped titania due to changing of the unit cell parameters, that significantly affects on the reversibility of the insertion/extraction process. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results indicate that substitution of Zr4+ for Ti4+ into anatase TiO2 has favorable effects on the conductivity.

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    Boron Oxide Glasses and Nanocomposites: Synthetic, Structural and Statistical Approach
    Hristov Hristo, Nedyalkova Miroslava, Madurga Sergio, Simeonov Vasil
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (6): 535-540.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.07.016
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    Three different precursors of boron-aqua and glycerol solutions of boric acid and ethanol solution of trimethyl borate were used for the preparation of organic-inorganic advanced materials. The films and bulk materials samples were heat treated at 100, 400, 800 °C for 2 h. The hybrid samples were stable and transparent until 100 °C. The further increase of temperature to 400 °C led to destruction of samples, and at 800 °C they were molten. The structural changes during the pyrolysis were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. Details of surface morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained BO3 and BO4 groups were identified in the molten materials after pyrolysis. The quantities and order of borate structural units as well as residual carbon in the networks depended on boron precursor type. PVA/PEG/B2O3 hybrid materials were proved to be appropriate precursors for synthesizing borate and carboborate glass and carbon/borate glass nanocomposites. To access the impact of the experimental conditions on the structural changes of the nanocomposites, cluster analysis of the IR-spectral data was used as a classification method.

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    Microstructure and tensile behavior of 2D-Cf/AZ91D composites fabricated by liquid-solid extrusion and vacuum pressure infiltration
    Li Shaolin, Qi Lehua, Zhang Ting, Zhou Jiming, Li Hejun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (6): 541-546.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.026
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    2D carbon fiber reinforced AZ91D matrix composites (2D-Cf/AZ91D composites) were fabricated by liquid-solid extrusion and vacuum pressure infiltration technique (LSEVI). In order to modify the interface between fibers and matrix and protect the fiber, pyrolytic carbon (PyC) coating was deposited on the surface of T700 carbon fiber by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Microstructure observation of the composites revealed that the composites were well fabricated by LSEVI. The segregation of aluminum at fiber surface led to the formation of Mg17Al12 precipitates at the interface. The aluminum improved the infiltration of the alloy and PyC coating protected the fibers effectively. The ultimate tensile strength of 2D-Cf/AZ91D composites was about 400 MPa. The fracture process of 2D-Cf/AZ91D composites was transverse fiber interface cracking-matrix transferring load-longitudinal fibers bearing load-longitudinal fibers breaking.

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    Band gap engineered polymeric-inorganic nanocomposite catalysts: Synthesis, isothermal stability, photocatalytic activity and photovoltaic performance
    Baig Umair, Gondal M.A., Ilyas A.M., Sanagi M.M.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (6): 547-557.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.11.031
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    Polymeric-inorganic nanocomposite catalysts were synthesized by facile one-pot chemical polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The electrical, optical, photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and visible light driven photocatalytic activities of the nanocomposite were investigated. The prepared nanocomposite displays excellent photo-activity, attaining 100% degradation of methyl orange dye in 60 min under visible light source while 55% for pure TiO2 under similar experimental conditions. The photovoltaic performance of the polypyrrole-titanium dioxide (PPy-TiO2) nanocomposite has a 51.4% improvement with a photo-conversion efficiency of 8.07% as compared to pure TiO2 based DSSC. By comparing the physical mixture of the PPy-TiO2 nanocomposite and pristine TiO2, the enhanced activity of the PPy-TiO2 nanocomposite can be attributed to the reduced charge transfer resistance, outstanding electrical conductance of the PPy, the nano-sized structure of TiO2 and their synergetic effect. Furthermore, the PPy-TiO2 nanocomposite shows excellent electrical conductivity and isothermal stability under ambient conditions below 110 °C.

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    Effects of processing parameters and addition of flame-retardant into moulding sand on the microstructure and fluidity of sand-cast magnesium alloy Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr
    Li Yanlei, Wu Guohua, Chen Antao, Liu Wencai, Wang Yingxin, Zhang Liang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (6): 558-566.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.01.013
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    In this study, the effects of processing parameters (such as pouring temperature and mould pre-heating temperature) and flame-retardant content on the microstructure and fluidity of sand-cast magnesium (Mg) alloy Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr (GW103K) were systematically investigated. It was found that the increase of pouring temperature leads to coarsened microstructure and decreased fluidity of sand-cast GW103K alloy. Increase of mould pre-heating temperature incurs coarsening of as-cast microstructure and increase of fluidity. The addition of flame-retardant into moulding sand has a negligible influence on the microstructure of sand-cast GW103K alloy. With the increase in flame-retardant content, fluidity of the alloy initially increases and then decreases. The optimized process parameters and flame-retardant addition were obtained to be pouring temperature of 750 °C, mould temperature of 110 °C, and flame-retardant addition of 1%. The fire retardant mechanism of moulding sand was determined.

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    Ultrasound-Assisted Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Magnesium Alloy Using Brass Interlayer in Air
    Lai Zhiwei, Xie Ruishan, Pan Chuan, Chen Xiaoguang, Liu Lei, Wang Wenxian, Zou Guisheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (6): 567-572.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.11.002
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    The microstructure evolution and oxide film behavior in ultrasound-assisted transient liquid phase (U-TLP) bonding of Mg alloy were investigated by applying different ultrasonic time at 460 °C with brass interlayer in air. The results indicated that with increasing ultrasonic time, brass interlayer disappeared gradually and the Mg-Cu-Zn eutectic compounds were formed. The eutectic compounds in the joint decreased as the ultrasonic time increased further. The oxide removal process was divided into four steps. Continuous oxide film at the interface was partially fractured by ultrasonic vibration, and then suspended into liquid by undermining eutectic reaction. After that, the suspended oxide film was broken into small oxide fragments by ultrasonic cavitation effect, which was finally squeezed out of the joint by ultrasonic squeeze action. In addition, the mechanical properties of the joints were investigated. The maximum shear strength of the joint reached 105 MPa, which was 100% of base metal.

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    Microstructural characteristics and deformation of magnesium alloy AZ31 produced by continuous variable cross-section direct extrusion
    Jiang Hongwei, Li Feng, Zeng Xiang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (6): 573-579.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.01.003
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    Magnesium (Mg) alloy AZ31 was produced by continuous variable cross-section direct extrusion (CVCDE) to study its deformation behavior. Metallographic microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe the variations in microstructure and fracture morphology of Mg alloy AZ31 as a function of processing methods. The results reveal that grains of Mg alloy AZ31 were refined and their microstructure was homogenized by CVCDE. The recrystallization in Mg alloy AZ31 produced by CVCDE with 2 interim dies was more complete than that produced by conventional extrusion (CE) and CVCDE with 1 interim die, and the grains were finer and more uniform. Plasticity of the AZ31 alloy was improved. Fracture mode was evolved from a combination of ductility and brittleness to a sole ductile form. In summary, a CVCDE mold structure with 2 interim dies can improve microstructure, plasticity, and toughness of Mg alloy AZ31.

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    Investigation of Portevin-Le Chatelier Band Strain and Elastic Shrinkage in Al-Based Alloys Associated with Mg Contents
    Cai Yulong, Yang Suli, Fu Shihua, Zhang Di, Zhang Qingchuan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (6): 580-586.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.05.012
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    The Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect in Al-2.30wt%Mg, Al-4.57wt%Mg and Al-6.91wt%Mg alloys has been investigated at various applied strain rates at room temperature in this study. Three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) technique was applied to obtaining the further insight into the spatiotemporal characteristics, in particular the influence of Mg content on deformation behaviors. Mg content has a pronounced effect on serration characteristics, including the serration type and amplitude; Mg content tends to weaken the spatial correlation of the propagative bands. Additionally, the serration amplitude linearly increases with the maximum PLC band strain; high Mg content generates a higher PLC band strain at a given serration amplitude compared with low Mg content. Mg content is found to be effective to enhance the serration amplitude, the maximum PLC band strain and also the amount of elastic shrinkage outside PLC bands.

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    Atmospheric Corrosion of Copper Exposed in a Simulated Coastal-Industrial Atmosphere
    Pan Chen, Lv Wangyan, Wang Zhenyao, Su Wei, Wang Chuan, Liu Shinian
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (6): 587-595.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.024
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    The corrosion behavior of copper exposed in a simulated coastal-industrial atmosphere has been investigated using weight loss measurement, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, potentiodynamic polarization and in-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with micro-distance electrodes. The results show that corrosion kinetics follows the empirical equation D = Atn. The main corrosion products are composed of Cu2O, Cu2Cl(OH)3 and Cu4Cl2(OH)6. A two-layer structure comprising a loose outer layer and a compact inner layer forms the corrosion products during corrosion process. SO2 has been found to promote the formation of Cu4Cl2(OH)6.

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    Effects of High Temperature Oxidation on Mechanical Properties of Ti3AlC2
    Li Xichao, Zheng Lili, Qian Yuhai, Xu Jingjun, Li Meishuan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (6): 596-602.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.05.004
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    The oxidation tests of Ti3AlC2 were conducted at 1100 and 1200 °C in air for 48 and 360 h, respectively, and the effects of high temperature oxidation on the flexural strength and hardness of Ti3AlC2 were investigated. The microstructure, grain size and phase compositions of Ti3AlC2 substrate didn't change after oxidation, hence the oxide removed Ti3AlC2 substrate maintained its initial flexural strength and hardness. However, the flexural strength of oxide retained Ti3AlC2 decreased by about 5%. Acoustic emission monitoring indicated that during the process of three-point bending test, the formed Al2O3 scale on Ti3AlC2 surface fractured firstly in a cleavage manner, then the substrate/oxide interface cracked, and finally the Ti3AlC2 substrate fractured. The mechanical degradation was caused by the preferential formation of cracks in brittle Al2O3 scale as well as at defective and lacunose grain boundaries of the substrate where stress concentration generated. The mechanical degradation was insensitive to oxidation temperature and time in the present conditions. In addition, the surface hardness increased significantly after oxidation due to the formed hard Al2O3 scale on the surface of Ti3AlC2 substrate.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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