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CN 21-1315/TG
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      19 December 2015, Volume 31 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Hot Deformation and Work Hardening Behavior of an Extruded Mg-Zn-Mn-Y Alloy
    N. Tahreen, D.F. Zhang, F.S. Pan, X.Q. Jiang, D.Y. Li, D.L. Chen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1161-1170.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.10.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the strain hardening and hot deformation behavior of as-extruded Mg-Zn-Mn (ZM31) magnesium alloy with varying Y contents (0.3, 3.2, and 6 wt%) via compression testing along the extrusion direction at room temperature, 200 °C and 300 °C. Texture and phases were identified by X-ray diffraction. Alloy ZM31 + 0.3Y consisted of a mixture of fine equiaxed grains and elongated grains with I-phase (Mg3YZn6); alloy ZM31 + 3.2Y contained I-phase and W-phase (Mg3Y2Zn3); alloy ZM31 + 6Y had long-period stacking-ordered (LPSO) X-phase (Mg12YZn) and Mg24Y5 particles. With increasing Y content the basal texture became weakened significantly. While alloys ZM31 + 0.3Y and ZM31 + 3.2Y exhibited a skewed true stress-true stain curve with a three-stage strain hardening feature caused by the occurrence of {10$\overline {1}$2} extension twinning, the true stress-true stain curve of alloy ZM31 + 6Y was normal due to the dislocation slip during compression. With increasing temperature the extent of skewness decreased. While the compressive yield stress, ultimate compressive stress, strain hardening exponent, and hardening capacity all decreased as the temperature increased, the retention of the high-temperature deformation resistance increased with increasing Y content mainly due to the presence of thermally-stable LPSO X-phase.
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    Transferred Monolayer Graphene as a Potential Anti-Oxidation Barrier for Alloy 690TT in Simulated Primary Water
    Hongliang Ming, Siyan Wang, Zhiming Zhang, Jianqiu Wang, En-Hou Han, Wei Ke
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1171-1174.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.11.004
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    To explore the usage of monolayer graphene as an anti-oxidation barrier in simulated primary water of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), we transferred the monolayer graphene synthesized by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) on Cu foil to Alloy 690TT. After a 500 h immersion, strong oxidation resistance was obtained from the graphene coated Alloy 690TT sample, indicating that the transferred monolayer graphene can act as an effective barrier to protect the substrate from oxidation in simulated primary water of PWRs.
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    High Response Gas Sensors for Formaldehyde Based on Er-doped In2O3 Nanotubes
    Xuesong Wang, Jinbao Zhang, Lianyuan Wang, Shouchun Li, Li Liu, Chang Su, Lili Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1175-1180.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.11.002
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Pure and Er-doped In2O3 nanotubes were systematically fabricated by using a single nozzle eletrospinning method followed by calcination. The as-synthesized nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Compared with pure In2O3 nanotubes, Er-doped In2O3 nanotubes exhibit improved formaldehyde sensing properties at 260 °C. The response of Er-doped In2O3 nanotubes to 20 ppm formaldehyde is about 12, which is 4 times larger than that of pure In2O3 nanotubes. The response and recovery times of Er-doped In2O3 nanotubes to 20 ppm formaldehyde are about 5 and 38 s, respectively. Furthermore, the response of Er-doped In2O3 nanotubes to 100 ppb formaldehyde is 2.19.
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    Structure and Piezoelectric Properties of Lead-Free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 Nanofibers Synthesized by Electrospinning
    Di Zhou, Youhua Zhou, Yu Tian, Yafang Tu, Guang Zheng, Haoshuang Gu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1181-1185.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.07.019
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Lead-free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) nanofibers with the perovskite structure were prepared by the electrospinning method. The nanofibers were about 200-300 nm in diameter and up to several hundred microns in length. The crystal structures and morphologies of the nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effective piezoelectric property of individual NBT nanofiber was examined by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The NBT nanofibers crystallized in pure perovskite phase after annealing above 700 °C in air and comprised a great number of fine particles with size of 60-80 nm. In addition, the electromechanical energy conversion models for NBT nanofibers were built and demonstrated high voltage output as high as several millivolts. Such a result qualifies NBT nanofibers as a promising candidate for lead-free electromechanical conversion devices.

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    Effect of Microstructures on Corrosion Behavior of Nickel Coatings: (I) Abnormal Grain Size Effect on Corrosion Behavior
    Guozhe Meng, Yang Li, Yawei Shao, Tao Zhang, Yanqiu Wang, Fuhui Wang, Xuequn Cheng, Chaofang Dong, Xiaogang Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1186-1192.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.10.011
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Nickel coatings with different microstructures were synthesized by pulse jet electrodeposition technique. Their morphology and microstructure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corrosion property of the coatings was studied by using polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potential of zero free charge (PZFC) measurements and Mott-Schottky (M-S) relationship. The results showed that the coating with grain size of 50 nm possessed higher corrosion resistance than that with grain size of 10 nm. This abnormal behavior may be related to the existence of nanoscale twins in the coatings and the lower concentration of acceptor in the passive films.
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    Preparation of Ti2AlC MAX Phase Coating by DC Magnetron Sputtering Deposition and Vacuum Heat Treatment
    Zongjian Feng, Peiling Ke, Aiying Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1193-1197.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.10.014
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Due to the excellent corrosion resistance and high irradiation damage resistance, Ti2AlCMAX phase is considered as a candidate for applications as corrosion resistant and irradiation resistant protective coating. MAX phase coatings can be fabricated through firstly depositing a coating containing the three elements M, A, and X close to stoichiometry of the MAX phases using physical vapor deposition, followed by heat treatment in vacuum. In this work, Ti-Al-C coating was prepared on austenitic stainless steels by reactive DC magnetron sputtering with a compound Ti50Al50 target, and CH4used as the reactive gas. It was found that the as-deposited coating is mainly composed of Ti3AlC antiperovskite phase with supersaturated solid solution of Al. Additionally, the ratio of Ti/Al remained the same as that of the target composition. Nevertheless, a thicker thermally grown Ti2AlC MAX phase coating was obtained after being annealed at 800 °C in vacuum for 1 h. Meanwhile, the ratio of Ti/Al became close to stoichiometry of Ti2AlCMAX phases. It can be understood that owing to the higher activity of Al, it diffused quickly into the substrate during annealing, and then more stable Ti2AlC MAX phases transformed from the Ti3AlC antiperovskite phase.
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    Adsorption and Diffusion Behavior of Cl- on Sputtering Fe-20Cr Nanocrystalline Thin Film in Acid Solution (pH = 2)
    Bin Zhang, Li Liu, Tianshu Li, Ying Li, Mingkai Lei, Fuhui Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1198-1206.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.10.016
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The adsorption and diffusion behavior of Cl- on sputtering Fe-20Cr nanocrystalline (NC) thin film compared with corresponding coarse crystalline (CC) alloy has been studied in HCl + NaCl solution (pH = 2, [Cl-]=0.1 mol/L) by electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the first-principles calculations. The XPS results show that adsorption and diffusion of Cl- in the passive film has been inhibited on NC thin film. Ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) results show that the work function Φsof NC thin film (4.7 eV) is higher than that of CC alloy (4.5 eV). The theoretical calculations and valence electron structure analysis were used to understand the effect of nanocrystallization in this work.
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    Wear Resistance of TiNx/CFy Coatings Deposited by RF Magnetron Co-Sputtering
    Lin Zhu, Jinwu Wang, Zhuang Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1207-1216.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.11.003
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    TiNx/CFy composite coatings were prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering using twin cylindrical tube targets with Ar and N2 mixtures. The composition of the coatings deposited at various positions was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry (RBS). The results revealed that the composition of the deposited coatings has a wide range of TiNx and CFy contents at different deposition positions, which leads to different structures and performances. The hardness of the composite coatings increases from 32 to 1603 HV with increasing the TiNxconcentration. The static contact angle of water ranges from 20° to 102° and decreases upon the incorporation of more TiNx into the CFy polymer. The presence of the CFygroups enhances the contact angle between the coating and the solutions dropped onto it, which could effectively protect the coating from corrosion and improve the wear resistance properties in high relative humidity (RH). The brittleness of the coatings decreases due to the softness of the CFy component, which can bear most of the load and result in less probability of crack formation. XPS results demonstrate the existence of a Ti—(C N) chemical bond in the composite coatings, which improves the wear resistance of the coatings. It is indicated that the wear resistance of the TiNx/CFy coatings is independent of the hardness. However, these properties depend on the uniform structure and the existence of chemical bonding between the TiNx and CFy phases. Moreover, a specific ratio between the soft CFy phase and the hard TiNx phase can produce coatings with good wear resistance.
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    Effect of Nitrogen Content on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of WB2(N) Films Deposited by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering
    Y.M. Liu, D.Y. Deng, H. Lei, Z.L. Pei, C.L. Jiang, C. Sun, J. Gong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1217-1225.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.07.017
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In the present study, WB2(N) films are fabricated on silicon and YG8 substrates at different N2 pressures by reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of N2 partial pressure (PN2) on the film microstructure and characteristics is studied systematically, including the chemical composition, crystalline structure, residual stress, surface roughness as well as the surface and the cross-section morphology. Meanwhile, nano-indentation and ball-on-disk tribometer are performed to analyze the mechanical and tribological properties of the films. The results show that the addition of nitrogen apparently leads to the change of the structure from (1 0 1) to (0 0 1) orientation then to the amorphous structure with the formation of BN phase. And the addition of nitrogen can greatly refine the grain size and microstructure of the films. Furthermore, the residual stress of the film is also found to change from tensile to compressive stress as a function of PN2, and the compressive stress increases with PN2. The WB2(N) films with small nitrogen content, which are deposited at PN2 of 0.004 and 0.006 Pa, exhibit better mechanical, tribological and corrosion properties than those of other films. Further increase of nitrogen content accelerates the formation of BN phase and fast decreases the film hardness. In addition, the large N2 partial pressure gives rise to the target poisoning accompanied by the increase of the target voltage and the decrease of the deposition rate.
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    Microstructures, Strength Characteristics and Wear Behavior of the Fe-based P/M Composites after Sintering or Infiltration with Cu-Sn Alloy
    Larisa N. Dyachkova, Eugene E. Feldshtein
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1226-1231.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.10.007
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Some properties of the Fe-based P/M composites sintered and reinforced by infiltration with Cu-Sn alloy were described. It is shown that the hardness of the sintered material is 2.5 times lower, tensile strength is 1.7 times lower and the wear resistance is 2.5-3.3 times lower in comparison with those of the infiltrated material. The presence of pores on the friction surface of the sintered material affects the features of the wear process. Due to the specific morphology of copper in the infiltrated material, the phenomenon of selective mass transfer is observed and worn surfaces have a spongy-capillary texture.
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    Growth and Optical Spectra of Tb3+/Eu3+ Co-doped Cubic NaYF4 Single Crystal for White Light Emitting Diode
    Yongzhang Jiang, Haiping Xia, Jiazhong Zhang, Shuo Yang, Haochuan Jiang, Baojiu Chen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1232-1236.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.10.008
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    High quality Tb3+/Eu3+ co-doped cubic NaYF4 single crystal in the size of Φ1.0 cm × 6.6 cm was grown by a modified Bridgman method using KF as assistant flux for NaF-YF3 system under the condition of completely closed Pt crucible. A white light emission from the combination of the violet-blue, blue, green, orange, and red lights with chromaticity coordinates of x = 0.3107, y = 0.3274, correlated color temperature of Tc = 6637 K, color rendering index of Ra = 83, and color quality scale of Qa = 82 could be obtained from 1.51 mol% Tb3+ and 1.42 mol% Eu3+ co-doped cubic NaYF4 single crystal when being excited by a 369 nm light. This indicates that Tb3+/Eu3+ co-doped cubic NaYF4 single crystal has a potential application in white light emitting diode excited by ultraviolet light.
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    Effects of Sintering Method and Sintering Temperature on the Microstructure and Properties of Porous Y2SiO5
    Zhen Wu, Luchao Sun, Jingyang Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1237-1243.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.09.016
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Porous Y2SiO5 ceramic is a promising high-temperature thermal insulator in harsh environment. However, all the published relevant works faced serious problems, such as severe linear shrinkage, low porosity and low strength. In this study, porous Y2SiO5 ceramic with low sintering shrinkage and high porosity was successfully prepared by foam-gelcasting method using gelatin as the gelling agent. The effects of sintering methods, including in situ reaction sintering and direct sintering, and sintering temperatures on the phase composition, microstructure, shrinkage, porosity, and compressive strength of porous Y2SiO5 were investigated. Compared with samples fabricated by direct sintering, porous Y2SiO5 ceramic prepared via in situ reaction sintering method has the merits of the low linear shrinkage of 1.0%-4.7%, low bulk density of 0.79-0.88?g/cm3, high porosity of 82.1%-80.1%, and high strength of 3.54-8.03?MPa, when the sintering temperatures increase from 1350 to 1550?°C. Porous Y2SiO5 has unique multiple pore structures, especially containing the interconnected small pores in skeleton. The thermal conductivity of porous Y2SiO5 is very low, which is 0.228?W/(m⋅K) for the sample with a porosity of 79.6%. This work reports an optimal processing method of highly porous Y2SiO5 with the potential application as high-temperature thermal insulation material.
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    Mineral Transition of Calcium Aluminate Clinker during High-Temperature Sintering with Low-lime Dosage
    Di Zhang, Xiaolin Pan, Haiyan Yu, Yuchun Zhai
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1244-1250.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.10.012
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The mineral transition mechanism and physicochemical property of calcium aluminate clinker sintered at 1350 °C were systematically studied using analytical reagent α-Al2O3, CaCO3 and SiO2 when the molar ratio of CaO to Al2O3 is 1.0. The results show that the formation of Ca2SiO4 accelerates the diffusion of CaO and Al2O3, which promotes the formation of CaAl2O4 determined by dilatometer, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. CaAl4O7, Ca3Al2O6, Ca3SiO5 and Ca2Al2SiO7 only exist in the initial stage of reactions, the amounts of which decrease with the increase of sintering duration. Ca3Al2O6 and Ca12Al14O33 react with Al2O3 and CaAl4O7 to form CaAl2O4, while Ca2Al2SiO7 reacts with CaO and Ca12Al14O33to form Ca2SiO4 and CaAl2O4. The sintered clinker contains CaAl2O4 and γ-Ca2SiO4 as well as some Ca12Al14O33 when the sintering duration is longer than 1.0 h. The differential scanning calorimetry results reveal that Ca2SiO4, Ca2Al2SiO7 and CaAl2O4 are formed at 985 °C, 1045 °C and 1339 °C, respectively. Increasing the sintering duration contributes to the transition of β-Ca2SiO4 to γ-Ca2SiO4, which improves the pulverization and alumina leaching property of the sintered clinker.
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    Microstructure Design and Heat Response of Powder Metallurgy Ti2AlNb Alloys
    Jie Wu, Lei Xu, Zhengguan Lu, Bin Lu, Yuyou Cui, Rui Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1251-1257.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.09.006
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Pre-alloyed powder of Ti-22Al-24Nb-0.5Mo (atomic fraction, %) was prepared by gas atomization. Powder metallurgy (PM) Ti2AlNb alloys were prepared by a hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) route. The influence of experimental variables including HIPing temperatures, solution and aging temperatures on microstructure and properties of PM Ti2AlNb alloys was studied. The results showed that HIPing temperature affected the porosity distribution and mechanical properties of PM Ti2AlNb alloys. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the PM Ti2AlNb alloys changed obviously after various post heat treatments, and a good combination of tensile strength, ductility and rupture lifetime was obtained through an optimized heat treatment in the present work.
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    Effects of Boron on the Microstructure, Ductility-dip-cracking, and Tensile Properties for NiCrFe-7 Weld Metal
    Wenlin Mo, Xiaobing Hu, Shanping Lu, Dianzhong Li, Yiyi Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1258-1267.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.08.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The distribution of boron and the microstructure of grain boundary (GB) precipitates (M23(C, B)6 and M2B) have been analyzed with their effects on the susceptibility of ductility-dip-cracking (DDC) and tensile properties for NiCrFe-7 weld metal, using optical microscopy (OM), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that boron segregates at GBs in NiCrFe-7 weld metal during the welding process. The segregation of boron at GBs promotes the formation of continuous M23(C, B)6 carbide chains and M2B borides along GBs. The addition of boron aggravates GB embrittlement and causes more DDC in the weld metal, by its segregation at GBs presenting as an impurity, and promoting the formation of larger and continuous M23(C, B)6 carbides, and M2B borides along GBs. DDC in the weld metal deteriorates the ductility and tensile strength of the weld metal simultaneously.
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    An Aluminide Surface Layer Containing Lower-Al on Ferritic-Martensitic Steel Formed by Lower-Temperature Aluminization
    S. Guo, Z.B. Wang, K. Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1268-1273.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.09.015
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    An aluminide (AlFe and α-(FeAl)) surface layer containing lower-Al was formed on ferritic-martensitic steel P92 by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) combined with a duplex aluminization process at lower temperatures, i.e. a packed aluminization followed by a diffusion annealing treatment below its tempering temperature. Indentation tests indicated that the lower-Al surface layer formed on the SMAT sample is more resistant to cracking and has better adhesion to the substrate in comparison with the Al5Fe2 layer formed on the as-received sample after the duplex aluminization process. Isothermal steam oxidation measurements showed that the oxidation resistance is increased significantly by the lower-Al surface layer due to the formation of a protective (Fe,Cr)Al2O4 layer. The rate constant of oxidation was estimated to decrease from ~0.849 mg2 cm-4 h-1 of the as-received material to ~0.011 mg2 cm-4 h-1 of the AlFe layer at 700 °C.
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    Preliminary Study on Corrosion Behaviour of Carbon Steel in Oil-Water Two-Phase Fluids
    Z.Y. Hu, D.L. Duan, S.H. Hou, X.J. Ding, S. Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1274-1281.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.12.014
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The corrosion behavior of type 1045 (AISI) carbon steel (CS) in oil-water fluids was investigated by considering the surface wetting state as the breakthrough point. The surface water wetting percentage (SWWP) and corrosion weight loss of CS in different oil-water fluids were measured. The morphology and composition of the corrosion films were detected via scanning electron microscopy, electron-probe face-scanning technology and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that the corrosion weight loss of CS in the oil-water fluids corresponded with SWWP and that the corrosion process was influenced by the participation of oil.
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    Effect of CO2 Gas on the Swelling and Tribological Behaviors of NBR Rubber in Water
    Xiaoren Lv, Shuyuan Song, Huiming Wang, Shijie Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (12): 1282-1288.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.09.014
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The swelling and tribological behaviors of nitrile-butadience (NBR) rubbers with three acrylonitrile contents (N18, N26 and N41) in water with different CO2 gas flows are investigated by immersion and wear experiments. The results show that the bubbles of CO2into water severely destroy the cross-linking network of rubber and form defects on the surface, such as cracks, holes and lamellar perks. These defects lead to an increase in the static and dynamic swelling increment. The dynamic swelling increment is almost three or four times larger than the static swelling increment. The hardness and wear resistance of rubbers in water with CO2 gas remarkably decreases in contrast to that in water, and they gradually decrease with an increase in the gas flow in water. The bubbles of CO2 decrease the steady frictional coefficient of rubber in water due to the presence of the gas in water lubricant film. The steady frictional coefficient in water with different CO2 gas flow basically remains 0.1. N41 with high acrylonitrile content shows better swelling and wear resistances than N18 and N26 because of its dense molecular network.
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