Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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The journal has been awarded the excellent periodical in China, and its articles are covered by SCI, EI, CA, SA, JST, RJ, CSA, MA, EMA, AIA etc., PASCAL web. ISI web of Science,SCOPUS.

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      09 November 2012, Volume 28 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    Screening the Insecticidal Effcacy of Nano ZnO Synthesized via in-situ Polymerization of Crosslinked Polyacrylic Acid as a Template
    M. Mekewi, Ahmed Shebl, A.I. Imam, M.S. Amin, T. Albert
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 961-968. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Nano zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very useful and important material in many industrial and biological applications. In the present work, ZnO was synthesized by post thermal degradation of the precursor \zinc acetate di-hydrate" templated in crosslinked polyacrylic acid (PAA). The crosslinked PAA template was prepared through an in-situ polymerization process adopted in presence of ammonium per sulphate, as an initiator, and N, N´-methylene bis-acrylamide as the crosslinker. Variation of preparation parameters and their impact on the oxide stoichiometry, crystal structure, crystallite size and surface texture of the oxide were investigated. Energy dispersive X-ray technique (EDX), X-ray di®raction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were convincingly used to reveal the oxide structural features and characteristics. The performed bioassay tests indicated the e±cacy of this method of preparation to produce nano ZnO with novel insecticidal activity against the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella.

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    Nanoindentation and Wear Characteristics of Al 5083/SiCp Nanocomposites Synthesized by High Energy Ball Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering
    Sivaiah Bathula, Saravanan M, Ajay Dhar
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 969-975. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Al 5083/10 wt% SiCp nano composites have been synthesized by means of high energy ball milling followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Nano composites produced via this method exhibited near-theoretical density while retaining the nano-grained features. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the crystalline size of the ball milled Al 5083 matrix was observed to be ~25 nm and it was coarsened up to ~30 nm after SPS. Nano indentation results of nano composites demonstrated a high hardness of ~280 HV with an elastic modulus of 126 GPa. Wear and friction characteristics with addition of SiCp reinforcement exhibited significant improvement in terms of coe±cient of friction and specific wear rate to that of nano structured Al 5083 alloy. The reduction in specific wear rate in the nanocomposite was mainly due to the change of wear mechanism from adhesive to abrasive wear with the addition of SiCp which resulted in high hardness associated with nano-grained microstructure.

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    Deflecting Easy-axis of Fe3O4 Single Crystal Nanowires by Magnetic-field-induced Method
    W. Wang, S.Y. Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 976-980. 
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    In order to control the orientation of easy-axis of magnetic nanowires, Fe3O4 single crystal nanowires with easy-axis perpendicular to wire-axis were prepared successfully by means of a magnetic-field-induced method. Analysis of X-ray di®raction and electron diffraction pattern showed that there was a wide-angle deflection of easy-axis in the prepared Fe3Onanowires. A high saturation magnetization (82 emu/g) of the Fe3O4 nanowires was achieved at room temperature. The benefits and mechanism of the deflection of easy-axis from its wire-axis in Fe3O4 single crystal nanowires were discussed. The results are expected to broaden the magnetic properties of traditional ferrite nanowires.

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    Thin Film and Coatings
    Influence of Nitrogen Flow Ratio on the Microstructure, Composition, and Mechanical Properties of DC Magnetron Sputtered Zr–B–O–N Films
    Tie-Gang Wang, Yanmei Liu, Tengfei Zhang, Doo-In Kim, KwangHo Kim
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 981-991. 
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    Nanocrystalline ZrB2 film and nanocomposite Zr–B–O–N films were prepared by non-reactive as well as reactive magnetron sputtering techniques, respectively. By means of X-ray diffraction analysis, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, the influence of nitrogen flow ratio on the film microstructure and characteristics were investigated systematically, including the deposition rate, chemical compositions, phase constituents, grain size, chemical bonding, as well as cross-sectional morphologies. Meanwhile, the hardness and adhesion of above films were also evaluated by micro-indentation method and a scratch tester. With increasing the nitrogen flow ratio, the deposition rate of above films decreased approximately linearly, whereas the contents of N and O in the films increased gradually and tended to saturation. Moreover, the film microstructure was also altered gradually from a fine columnar microstructure to a featureless glass-structure. As the nitrogen flow ratio was 11.7%, the Zr–B–O–N film possessed an typical nanocomposite structure and presented good mechanical properties. During the process of reactive sputtering of metal borides, the introduction of nitrogen can show a pronounced suppression of columnar grain growth and strong nanocomposite structure forming ability.

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    Influence of an External Magnetic Field on the Growth of Nanocrystalline Silicon Films Grown by MF Magnetron Sputterin
    Junhua Gao, Lin Zhang, Jinquan Xiao, Jun Gong, Chao Sun, Lishi Wen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 992-998. 
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    The effects of an external magnetic field originating from two solenoid coils on the magnetic field configuration, plasma state of a dual unbalanced magnetron sputter system and the structure of nanocrystalline Si films were examined. Numerical simulations of the magnetic field configuration showed that increasing the coil current significantly changed the magnetic field distribution between the substrate and targets. The saturated ion current density Ji in the substrate position measured by using a circular flat probe increased from 0.18 to 0.55 mA/cm2 with the coil current ranging from 0 to 6 A. X-ray diffraction and Raman results revealed that increasing the ion density near the substrate would benefit crystallization of  films and the preferential growth along [111] orientation. From analysis of the surface morphology and the microstructure of Si films grown under different plasma conditions, it is found that with increasing the Ji, the surface of the film was smoothed and the alteration in the surface roughness was mainly correlated to the localized surface diffusion of the deposited species and the crystallization behavior of the films.

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    Effect of Thickness of SnO2:F over Layer on Certain Physical Properties of ZnO:Al Thin Films for Opto-electronic Applications
    P. Ravikumar, K. Ravichandran, B. Sakthivel
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 999-1003. 
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    Bilayered FTO/AZO (fluorine doped tin oxide/aluminium doped zinc oxide) films were fabricated using a simple, cost effective spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles of bilayered films showed that in the case of lower thickness FTO over layers, (002) plane of ZnO phase had the highest intensity, whereas the predominance was changed in favour of (200) plane of SnO2 phase for higher thickness FTO over layer. UV studies showed that bilayered FTO/AZO films exhibited a sharp absorption edge as that of AZO film. The decrease in the photoluminescence (PL) peak at 420 nm with increasing FTO over layer thickness indicated a reduction in the zinc vacancies which caused a reduction in the sheet resistance (Rsh). Electrical studies revealed that, eventhough the Rsh value (916 Ω­/?) of bilayered FTO (313 nm)/AZO (314 nm) film was found to be higher than that of FTO single layer film (72 ­Ω­/?), it was much lower than that of AZO single layer film (5661 Ω­/?). The atomic force microscopy (AFM) images reflect the characteristic features of both
    zinc oxide and tin oxide films.

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    Effect of Applied Current Density on Morphological and Structural Properties of Electrodeposited Fe–Cu Films
    Umut Sarac, M. Celalettin Baykul
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 1004-1009. 
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    A detailed study has been carried out to investigate the effect of applied current density on the composition, crystallographic structure, grain size, and surface morphology of Fe–Cu films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the films consist of a mixture of face-centered cubic (fcc) Cu and body centered cubic (bcc) α-Fe phases. The average crystalline size of both Fe and Cu particles decreases as the applied current density becomes more negative. Compositional analysis of FeCu films indicates that the Fe content within the films increases with decreasing current density towards more negative values. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to investigate the surface morphology of Fe–Cu films. It is observed that the surface morphology of the films changes from dendritic structure to a cauliflower structure as the applied current density becomes more negative. The surface roughness and grain size of the Fe–Cu films decrease with decreasing applied current density towards more negative values.

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    Novel Processing and Characterization Methods
    <110> Fiber Texture Evolution of Ferrite Wires during Drawn-torsion and Drawn-annealing-torsion Process
    Y.D. Liu, Y.D. Zhang, A. Tidu, L. Zuo
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 1010-1014. 
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    In this paper, the texture and microstructure evolution of drawn-torsion and drawn-annealing-torsion ferrite wires are studied by electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) in order to investigate the special torsion texture evolution. Compared to the simulation results, the stable texture components {110}<110> and {110}<112> in both drawn-torsion and drawn-annealing-torsion wires display different evolution processes. The texture of the drawn-annealing-torsion wire fits to the Taylor model. A special texture evolution is found in drawn-torsion wires, related to the grain shape, and the heterogeneous deformation. A new plastic deformation viewpoint is suggested based on the special microstructure of drawn ferrite wire.

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    Development of Microstructure and Texture Heterogeneities during Static Annealing of Ti–6.5Al–3.5Mo–1.5Zr–0.3Si Alloy Preformed by Hot Working
    Saiyi Li, Liang Yang, Liming Lei, Chenyang Wei, Huiru Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 1015-1024. 
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    The effect of annealing temperature on the development of microstructure and texture in an α+β titanium alloy Ti6.5Al–3.5Mo–1.5Zr–0.3Si (TC11) preformed by hot working was investigated with the aid of electron back-scattered diffraction and X-ray diffraction measurements. It is shown that considerable microstructure and texture heterogeneities were developed in the cross-section of the hot-worked rod due to the non-uniform deformation. Subsequent annealing at 940 °C and 990 °C led to homogeneous microstructures with globular α grains, whereas a typical lamellar α+β microstructure was obtained after annealing at 1040 °C. In the latter case, the Burgers orientation relationship was well preserved between the two phases in a single colony. The α lamellar within a given colony depicted similar crystallographic orientations and the boundary α grains shared the orientation of one of the neighboring α lamellar. In contrast, subsequent annealing had very limited effect on the main features of the textures, indicating strong inheritance of the texture heterogeneity in annealing. It is thus crucial to control the hot working process in order to achieve a high level of texture homogeneity in
    the final parts.

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    High Strain Rate Superplasticity in a Micro-grained Al–Mg–Sc Alloy with Predominant High Angle Grain Boundaries
    F.C. Liu, Z.Y. Ma, F.C. Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 1025-1030. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Friction stir processing (FSP) was applied to extruded Al–Mg–Sc alloy to produce fine-grained microstructure with a grain size of 2.2 µm. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) result showed that the grain boundary misorientation distribution was very close to a random grain assembly for randomly oriented cubes. Super-plastic investigations in the temperature range of 425–500 °C and strain rate range of 1×10-2–1×100 s-1 showed that a maximum elongation of 1500% was achieved at 475 °C and a high strain rate of 1×10-1 s-1. The FSP Al–Mg–Sc exhibited enhanced superplastic deformation kinetics compared to that predicted by the constitutive relationship for superplasticity in fine-grained aluminum alloys. The origin for enhanced superplastic deformation kinetics in the FSP alloy can be attributed to its high fraction of high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs). The analyses of the superplastic data and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations on the surfaces of deformed specimens indicated that grain boundary sliding is the main superplastic deformation
    mechanism for the FSP Al–Mg–Sc alloy.

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    High Temperature Structural Materials
    Microstructure of Carbides at Grain Boundaries in Nickel Based Superalloys
    Xiaoming Dong, Xiaoli Zhang, Kui Du, Yizhou Zhou, Tao Jin, Hengqiang Ye
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 1031-1038. 
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    It is well known that carbides at grain boundaries play an important role in affecting mechanical properties of nickel based superalloys. In order to deeply understand the relationship between grain boundary structures and properties, in this work, we have investigated the microstructure of grain boundaries with different misorientation angles in bicrystals of nickel based superalloys. It is found that the bicrystals with smaller misorientation angles contain denser M23C6 but sparse MC particles at grain boundaries, and this kind of bicrystals presents longer stress rupture lives. It was observed that MC carbides were decorated by M23C6 and M6C particles at grain boundaries. The formation of these carbide particles, therefore, is likely due to the local fluctuation
    of chemical composition around MC carbides. In addition, the orientation relationships between MC carbides and γ/γ´ matrix were also determined.

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    TEM Characterization of Self-ion Irradiation Damage in Nickel-base Alloy C-276 at Elevated Temperature
    Shuoxue Jin, Liping Guo, Yaoyao Ren, Rui Tang, Yanxin Qiao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 1039-1045. 
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    The microstructure of nickel-base alloy C-276 irradiated at 500 °C with 300 keV self-ions (Ni+) to a peak displacement damage of 4.5 displacements per atom was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Both black spots and dislocation loops were observed. The black spots were identified as small dislocation loops, with a density of (8.2±0.2)×1015 cm-3 and the average loop size of about 15 nm. An increase of dislocation loop density would lead to the increase of the hardness in C-276 alloy, and the increment in yield strength was estimated by the dispersed barrier-hardening model. In [110] orientation, Burgers vectors of the dislocation loops were determined, and it was found that they were predominantly (a/2)<110>. In contrast to other nickel-base alloys, no voids were observed in C-276 alloy after being irradiated at elevated temperatures.

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    Iron and Steel
    Effects of Rare Earth Elements on the Characteristics of Low Temperature Plasma Nitrocarburized Martensitic Stainless Steel
    R.L. Liu, Y.J. Qiao, M.F. Yan, Y.D. Fu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 1046-1052. 
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    Low temperature plasma nitrocarburizing of 17-4PH martensitic stainless steel was conducted at 430 °C with and without rare earth (RE) addition. The microstructure, kinetics, microhardness, wear behavior as well as corrosion resistance of the modified layer were studied by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Vickers microhardness tester, pin-on-disc tribometer and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The results show that the thickness of plasma RE nitrocarburized layer is much thicker than that formed by nitrocarburizing without RE addition. The incorporation of RE does not change the kind of the phases and the nitrocarburized layer consists mainly of nitrogen and carbon expanded martensite α´N, γ´-Fe4N and α´-Fe with a trace of CrN phases. The
    surface microhardness of plasma nitrocarburized layer can be increased by 100 HV after RE addition. Wear resistance of the specimen can be apparently improved by low temperature plasma nitrocarburizing with and without RE addition and without sacrificing its corrosion resistance. Wear reduction effect of low temperature plasma nitrocarburizing with RE addition is better than that of the conventional one.

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    Influence of Cr, Mn and Mo Addition on Structure and Properties of V Microalloyed Medium Carbon Steels
    Abdunnaser Fadel, Dragomir Gli?ic, Nenad Radovic, Djordje Drobnjak
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 1053-1058. 
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    The effect of austenitizing temperature and Cr, Mo and Mn addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of V microalloyed medium carbon steel has been studied by means of metallography and mechanical testing. The addition of Cr, Mn and Mo leads to a decrease in yield strength (YS) by approximate 100 MPa in comparison to the base steel. It is assumed that Mn and Mo increase hardenability by promoting the formation of bainitic sheaves (BS), i.e. by suppressing the formation of ferrite-pearlite and acicular ferrite (FP-AF). Cr at the level used in this work is not that e®ective. Presence and packet size of bainitic sheaves decrease the Charpy V-notch impact energy at 20 °C (CVN20) in comparison to ferrite-pearlite and acicular ferrite microstructures.

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    Effects of Heat Treatment and Nitrogen on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of  Cr12NiMo Martensitic Stainless Steel
    Ruicheng Fan, Ming Gao, Yingche Ma, Xiangdong Zha, Xianchao Hao, Kui Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 1059-1066. 
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    A series of heat treatments using the orthogonal experiment method were performed to study the microstructure and mechanical properties of 1Cr12NiMo martensitic stainless steel containing various nitrogen content addition. The results indicate that the optimal heat treatment is annealing at 830 °C for 1 h, austenitizing at 985 °C for 1 h followed by oil quenching, and tempering at 630 ±C for 4 h followed by air cooling. Nitrogen addition to 1Cr12NiMo steel can effectively hinder the austenite grain growth, refine the martensite lath, and increase the strength and hardness. The impact toughness of this steel only shows a minor decrease as the nitrogen content increases.

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    Antibacterial Behavior of a Cu-bearing Type 200 Stainless Steel
    Li Nan, Jinglong Cheng, Ke Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (11): 1067-1070. 
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    A preliminary study was made on the antibacterial behavior of a newly designed Cu-bearing type 200 stainless steel by different methods including Vickers hardness measurement, electrochemical test and antibacterial test. The results showed that Cu-rich precipitations caused by the saturated Cu in the steel matrix was not only a crucial factor for its excellent antibacterial capability, but also for its equivalent corrosion resistance as good as the commercial type 200 stainless steel.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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