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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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  Current Issue
      30 October 2012, Volume 28 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    Synthesis and Characterization of Niobium-doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays by Anodization of Ti−20Nb Alloys
    Zhengchao Xu, Qi Li, Shian Gao, Jianku Shang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 865-870. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Well crystallized niobium-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiNbO-NT) were successfully synthesized via the anodization of titanium/niobium alloy sheets, followed with a heat treatment at 550 °C for 2 h. Morphology analysis results demonstrated that both the titanium/niobium alloy microstructure and the dissolution strength of electrolyte played major roles in the formation of nanotube structure. A single-phase microstructure was more favorable to the formation of uniform nanotube arrays, while modulating the dissolution strength of electrolyte was required to obtain nanotube arrays from the alloys with multi-phase microstructures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) analysis results clearly demonstrated that niobium dopants (Nb5+) were successfully doped into TiO2 anatase lattice by substituting Ti4+ in this approach.

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    Annealing Effect on Wear Resistance of Nanostructured 316L Stainless Steel Subjected to Dynamic Plastic Deformation
    Bo Wang, Bin Yao, Zhong Han
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 871-877. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Bulk nanostructured 316L austenitic stainless steel (SS) samples with nano-scale twin bundles embedded in nano-sized grains were synthesized by using dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). Subsequent thermal annealing of the as-DPD sample leads to a single austenitic structure with static recrystallized (SRX) grains in nanostructured matrix. Oil-lubricated sliding tests of ball-on-disc type were carried out for the as-DPD and the as-annealed DPD steel samples in comparison with coarse grained (CG) steel samples. Experimental results show that the as-DPD 316L steel exhibits a little enhanced wear resistance under a load of 10 N, and nearly identical wear resistance under a load of 30 N relative to that of the CG sample. After annealing, the wear
    resistance roughly follows the Archard equation under a load of 10 N. However, the wear resistance increases with increasing hardness, and decreases with a further increase in hardness under a load of 30 N. The highest wear resistance can be found in the DPD sample annealed at 750 °C for about 20 min, which is more than 46% higher than that of the CG steel sample. This phenomenon is originated from the microstructure with an optimized combination of strength and ductility as a result of moderate plastic deformation in SRX grained regions.

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    Iron and Steel
    Effect of TiN Particles and Grain Size on the Charpy Impact Transition Temperature in Steels
    J. Duy, M. Strangwood, C.L. Davis
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 878-888. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    The toughness of ferritic steels is influenced by the grain size distribution, second phase, precipitates and coarse inclusions. In this work an examination of the effect of coarse TiN particles (>0.5 μm) and ferrite grain size on the Charpy impact transition temperature in high strength low alloyed steels has been carried out. Steels with high Ti content (up to 0.045 wt%), have been heat-treated and furnace cooled to obtain a ferrite-pearlite microstructure with different ferrite grain sizes. Coarse TiN particle size and ferrite grain size distributions have been measured and Charpy impact testing has been carried out. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis has been used to measure the grain boundary carbide thickness and to determine if the coarse TiN
    particles are acting as cleavage initiation sites by fractographic analysis. The Charpy ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTT) have been predicted using standard literature equations, and compared to the measured values. The relationship between the ferrite grain size and coarse TiN particle size and number density in terms of whether the coarse TiN particles act as effective cleavage initiation sites is discussed in this paper.

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    Effects of Processing Parameters on Microstructure and Properties of Ultra High Strength Linepipe Steel
    Xiaodan Wu, Hakcheol Lee, Young Min Kim, Nack J. Kim
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 889-894. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    To examine the effect of processing parameters on microstructural evolution and to obtain the excellent combination of strength and toughness, simulation of thermo-mechanical processing was conducted using the Gleeble machine. Trial production was then conducted under the conditions obtained by Gleeble tests. Based on the results of microstructure analysis and mechanical property evaluation, the relationship between microstructural features and mechanical properties was elucidated. The result shows that the volume fraction of constituted phases can be controlled through adjusting the cooling rate and finish cooling temperature in order to get different strength levels. As cooling rate increases, the volume fraction of upper bainite increases, which leads to the increase of strength. The upper shelf energy (USE) increases with increasing volume fraction of acicular ferrite in bainite base because of the small effective acicular ferrite grain size. Ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) decreases with increasing acicular ferrite volume fraction. High reduction in the rough stage has great influence on grain refinement.

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    Hot Corrosion Behavior of Friction Welded AISI 4140 and AISI 304 in K2SO–60% NaCl Mixture
    N. Arivazhagan1)y, K. Senthilkumaran, S. Narayanan, K. Devendranath Ramkumar, S. Surendra, S. Prakash
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 895-904. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Understanding the behavior of weldment at elevated temperatures and especially the corrosion behavior has become an object of scientific investigation recently. Investigation has been carried out on friction welded AISI 4140 and AISI 304 in molten salt of K2SO4–60% NaCl environment at 550, 600 and 
    650 °C under cyclic condition. The resulted oxide scales in the weldment have been characterized systematically by surface analytical techniques. From the results of the experiments, it is observed that the scale thickness on low alloy steel side was higher than that on stainless steel side. Furthermore, weld interface has been found to be more susceptible to degradation than base metals due to inter diffusion of element across the interface and the formation of intermetallic compound. The in°uences of welding parameters and the temperature of exposure on the hot corrosion behavior of the weldment were discussed in this paper.

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    Corrosion Evolution of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete under Dry/Wet Cyclic Conditions Contaminated with Chloride
    J. Wei, X.X. Fu, J.H. Dong, W. Ke
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 905-912. 
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    The corrosion evolution of rebar in concrete was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) under dry/wet alternated accelerated corrosion test. Four stages with different dynamic characteristics were observed during the corrosion evolution. They were passive stage, local corrosion controlled by the charge transfer step, accelerated corrosion controlled by the mass transfer step, and constant rate corrosion controlled by the mass transfer step through a barrier layer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the corrosion product of rebar in mortar was composed of α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH and Fe3O4. The corrosion mechanisms of all four stages were discussed and the corrosion reactions were proposed according to the corrosion product and corrosion evolution characteristics.

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    Mechanical and Functional Properties of Materials
    Microwave Absorption and Shielding Property of Composites with FeSiAl and Carbonous Materials as Filler
    Wenqiang Zhang, Yonggang Xu, Liming Yuan, Jun Cai, Deyuan Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 913-919. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Silicone rubber composites filled with FeSiAl alloys and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/graphite have been prepared for the first time by a coating process. The complex permittivity and permeability of  the composites were measured with a vector network analyzer in a 1–4 GHz frequency range, and the DC electric conductivity was measured by a standard four-point contact method. These parameters were then used to calculate the reflection loss (RL) and shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composites. The results showed that the added MWCNT increased the permittivity and permeability of composites in the L-band, while the added graphite increased only the permittivity. The variation lies in the interactions between two carbonous absorbents. Addition of 1 wt% MWCNT enhanced the RL in the L-band (minimum −5.7 dB at 1 mm, −7.3 dB at 1.5 mm), while the addition of graphite did not. Addition of MWCNT as well as graphite reinforced the shielding property of the composites (maximum SE 13.3 dB at 1 mm, 18.3 dB at 1.5 mm) owing to the increase of conductivity. The addition of these carbonous materials could hold the promise of enforcing the absorption and shielding property of the absorbers.

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    Influence of Fabrication Parameters on the Phase Formation and Dielectric Properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 Ceramics
    Qian Zheng, Huiqing Fan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 920-926. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    The giant dielectric permittivity materials CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) were synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction techniques. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering for the powder indicate that the powder calcined at 950 °C for 12 h has been completely transformed into the purer CCTO phase. Furthermore, the morphology and size of the grains of the ceramics sintered at 1090 °C in the dwell time range from 0 to 26 h were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dielectric properties of the polycrystalline CCTO ceramics were characterized in a broad frequency range (100 Hz–1 MHz) and at a temperature ranged from 300 to 500 K. The longer sintering time may lead to more defect structures and the enhanced conductivity, also leads to substantial improvements in permittivity. Grain size and density differences were not large enough to account for the enhancement in dielectric permittivity. Based on the observations, it is believed that the primary factor affecting dielectric behavior is the development of internal defects. The CCTO ceramics sintered at 1090 °C for 15 h exhibit lower dielectric loss (~0.05) near room temperature, and the dielectric relaxation behavior above 1 kHz was observed to follow the Arrhenius law. The activation energy (Ea) of 0.65 eV indicates that the doubly ionized oxygen vacancies in the grain boundaries are responsible
    for the dielectric relaxation of the CCTO ceramics.

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    Improvement of Coercivity and Corrosion Resistance of Nd–Fe–B Sintered Magnets with Cu Nano-particles Doping
    C. Sun, W.Q. Liu, H. Sun, M. Yue, X.F. Yi, J.W. Chen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 927-930. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Nd–Fe–B permanent magnets with a small amount of Cu nano-particles doping have been prepared by conventional sintered method. E®ects of Cu content on magnetic properties, corrosion resistance, and oxidation properties of the magnets have been studied. It shows that the coercivity rises gradually, while the remanence decreases simultaneously with increasing Cu doping amount. Microstructure observation reveals that Cu element enriches mainly the Nd-rich phase. Autoclave test results show that the corrosion rate of the magnets decreases with increasing Cu content. After oxidation, the maximum energy product loss of the magnets with 0 and 0.2 wt% Cu nano-particles doping are 6.13% and 0.99%, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded that Cu nano-particles doping is a promising way to enhance the coercivity and corrosion resistance of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets.

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    Carbon and Nickel Oxide/Carbon Composites as Electrodes for Supercapacitors
    Liutauras Marcinauskas, Zydrunas Kavaliauskas, Vitas Valincius
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 931-936. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    The carbon and nickel oxide/carbon composite electrodes were prepared by plasma jet and magnetron sputtering techniques. The investigations were performed to evaluate the in°uence of the Ar/C2H2 ratio on the specific capacitance values of carbon and NiO/carbon electrodes. The obtained electrodes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy (RS), and X-ray diffraction techniques. The surface of the carbon electrodes became less porous and more homogenous with increasing Ar/C2H2. The RS results indicated that the fraction of the sp2 carbon sites increased with increasing Ar/C2H2 ratio. The increase of the Ar/C2H2 ratio increased the capacitance values from 0.73 up to 3.6 F/g. Meanwhile, after the
    deposition of the nickel oxide on the carbon, the capacitance increased ten and more times and varied in the range of 7.6–86.1 F/g.

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    Microstructure and Microhardness of Tempered Ni–Al Alloyed Layer
    Yue Yang, Hua Wu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 937-940. 
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    A Nd:YAG pulsed laser was used to alloy the Ni{P electroless deposited coating with aluminum substrate under the condition of scanning speed of 3.0 mm/s and power density of 5.36–109 W/m2. Subsequently, the samples were heat treated at 300, 400 and 500 °C for 2.5 h, respectively. The phase composition and microstructure of the tempered layers treated at different temperature were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the phase constituents of the alloyed zones were intermetallic compounds of NiAl, Al3Ni, Ni3P and AlNi3. As a result, the microhardness of the alloyed layer after heat treatment was improved obviously compared to untreated samples, and the layer obtained at temperature 400 °C reached HV0.1 430.

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    Magnetism and Magnetocaloric Properties of Mn3Zn1−xSnxC and Mn3−xCrxZnC Compounds
    Naikun Sun, Yaobiao Li, Feng Liu, Tongbo Ji
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 941-945. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Upon substitution of Sn for Zn, the Curie temperature of Mn3ZnC is lowered from 380 to 375 K for Mn3Zn0.95Sn0.05C and to 305 K for Mn3Zn0.75Sn0.25C. In accordance with the second-order ferromagnetic paramagnetic transition, a room-temperature magnetocaloric effect without thermal and magnetic hysteresis is observed over a wide temperature range. The maximum value of the magnetic-entropy change ?SM for a magnetic-field change from 0 to 5 T is 2.42 J?kg-1K-1 at 386 K for Mn3Zn0.95Sn0.05C and 1.70 J?kg-1K-1 at 308 K for Mn3Zn0.75Sn0.25C. Meanwhile, substitution of Cr for Mn lowers the temperature of ferromagnetic-ferrimagnetic transition from 233 K for Mn3ZnC to 230 K for Mn2.9Cr0.1ZnC and to 175 K for Mn2.1Cr0.9ZnC. An inverse magnetocaloric effect with ?SM equal to 0.28 J?kg-1K-1 at 223 K for a field change from 0 to 1.47 T is observed for Mn2.9Cr0.1ZnC.

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    Novel Processing and Characterization Methods
    A Novel Process in Semi-Solid Metal Casting
    Bijan Abbasi-Khazaei, Saeid Ghaderi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 946-950. 
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    In this research a new process for semi-solid casting of ductile iron based on the high nucleation rate combined with locally mechanical stirring is presented. In this process at first fully liquid ductile iron was poured on the peripheral surface of a wheel rotating against pouring direction. At this stage, the solid crystals nucleated at the chilling surface were pushed to the melt by a heat resistance steel cutter and finally the semi-solid slurry was generated. Reheating treatment was done on the samples to achieve more e±ciency of semi-solid casting process. The effects of the travelling distance of solid particles during casting, the reheating time and temperature were examined. The results showed that the process effectively changes the dendrite structure to globular one.

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    Radial Distribution of SiC Particles in Mechanical Stirring of A356–SiCp Liquid
    Yunhui Du, Peng Zhang, Jun Zhang, Shasha Yao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 951-955. 
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    The mechanical stirring of A356–2.5 vol.% SiCp liquid was conducted in a cylindrical crucible by a straight-blade stirrer. The radial distribution of SiC particles in A356 liquid was studied under the conditions of 25 deg. for gradient angle α of blade and 10 mm/s for speed of moving up and down of stirrer. The results show that there exists a nonlinear relationship between rotating speed of stirrer and radial relative deviation of SiCp content in A356 liquid between the center and the periphery of crucible. The greater the rotating speed of stirrer is, the bigger the radial relative deviation of SiCp content in A356 liquid becomes and the more nonhomogeneous the radial distribution of SiC particles in A356 liquid turns. In addition, when the rotating speed of stirrer is about 200 r/min, the vertical distribution of SiC particles in A356 liquid is relative uniform. It can be seen that the nonhomogeneous distribution of SiC particles in A356 liquid results from the nonho

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    Hydrolysis Mechanism of Borazine-derived Boron Nitride Pyrolysized below 1200 °C
    Feng Cao, Kun Liu, Zhenyu Fang, Siqing Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (10): 956-960. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Boron nitride (BN) powders were synthesized by pyrolysis at various temperatures to investigate the hydrolysis mechanism of borazine-derived BN pyrolysized below 1200 °C. The BN was hydrolysized near room temperature at 65% or 90% relative humidity (RH) over 45 days. The long-term hydrolysis mechanism and structure evolution were investigated by a measurement of mass growth and by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The samples pyrolysized below 1200 ±C were very sensitive to moisture, and their mass growth was closely related to the pyrolysis temperature. At 25 °C and 65% RH, the sample pyrolysized at 400 °C exhibited almost 100 wt% mass growth within 8 days, while the sample pyrolysized at 1200 °C exhibited about 20 wt% mass growth. The XRD analysis suggested a hydrolysis mechanism that corresponded to the interlayer spacing in the BN, which was consistent with the results reported. On the other hand, the instability of borazine-derived BN
    should be directly due to the residual N{H bonds in the compound, as suggested by FT-IR analysis.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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