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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      31 May 2010, Volume 26 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Invited Review
    Layered Machinable and Electrically Conductive Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 Ceramics: a Review
    X.H. Wang Y.C. Zhou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (5): 385-416. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2488KB)

    Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 are the most light-weight and oxidation resistant layered ternary carbides belonging to the MAX phases. This review highlights recent achievements on the processing, microstructure, physical, mechanical and chemical properties of these two machinable and electrically conductive carbides. Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 display superior properties such as fracture toughness, electrical and thermal conductivities, and oxidation resistance over their binary counterpart. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the processing-microstructure-property correlations of these two carbides. Potential fields of applications for Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 are surveyed. In addition, we point out methods for further improving their properties in some specific applications through appropriate structural design and modification.

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    Novel Processing and Characterization Methods
    Biomolecule-assisted Solvothermal Synthesis of Bismuth Sulfide Nanorods
    Jiasong Zhong Weidong Xiang Lijun Liu Xinyu Yang Wen Cai Jingfeng Zhang Xiaojuan Liang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (5): 417-422. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (762KB)

    A simple biomolecule-assisted synthetic route has been successfully developed to prepare bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) nanorods under solvothermal conditions. In the synthetic system, pentahydrate bismuth nitrate was employed to supply Bi source and L-cystine was used as sulfide source and complexing agent. The morphology, structure, and phase composition of the as-prepared Bi2S3 products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanfining electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The experimental results show that the nanorods have uniform diameter of 100-200 nm and length of 2-4μm. The possible formation mechanism
    for the bismuth sulfide nanorods was discussed.

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    Fabrication of Open-cell Al Foam Core Sandwich by Vibration Aided Liquid Phase Bonding Method and Its Mechanical Properties
    Hui Wang Donghui Yang Siyuan He Deping He
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (5): 423-428. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (897KB)

    The open-cell Al foam core sandwiches (AFCSs) were successfully fabricated by using a specially designed Zn-Al-Cu based filler alloy via vibration aided liquid phase bonding method. The effects of the vibration on the bonding seam were investigated and the bonding strength between Al foam core and solid Al alloy face sheet was tested by shearing tests. The results show that vibration can significantly improve the quality of the bonding and the shearing strength of the bonding seam, which implies that this joining method has a good potential in practical applications.

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    Direct Electrodeposition of Cu-Ni-W Alloys for the Liners for Shaped Charges
    Hanwei Hey Shouya Jia
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (5): 429-432. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (420KB)

    The Cu-Ni-W alloys for the liners for shaped charges were successfully prepared by direct current (DC) electrodeposition. The influence of cathode current density on morphology, microstructure and composition of the Cu-Ni-W alloys was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). With the increasing of current density, the copper content reduces gradually and the nickel and tungsten content increase; the crystallite size is decreased. When the current density is 15 A/dm2the tungsten content reaches 12.96 wt pct, and the crystallite size is submicron degree. The Cu-Ni-W alloy is face-centered cubic (fcc) solid solution. All of the Cu-Ni-W alloys take on (220) texture.

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    HREM Observation of Age-Precipitated Particles in Practical Cu-bearing Ultra-Low Carbon Steels
    Guiquan Yin Caifu Yang Yinong Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (5): 433-438. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (614KB)

    Morphology, distribution and crystal structures of age-precipitated particles in practical Cu-bearing steels with ultra-low carbon were studied by high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The age-precipitation behavior was explored when poly-microalloying elements Cu, Nb, Cr, Mo and Ni were used and "-Cu particles coexisted with carbides (carbonitrides) in steels. The fine dispersed "-Cu particles and carbides of microalloying element Nb, Cr, Mo being about 10 nm only in size were observed in peak aging specimens and over-aging specimens. The twin structures and stacking faults in the particles and the transient structures formed in the early stage of the particle precipitation were also observed. The crystal structure of three types of age-precipitation particles was firstly identified by lattice streaks in HREM images of the single particles. The experimental method identifying crystal structure of fine and dispersed particles using HREM images of single particle was proposed.

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    Sol-Gel Based Soft Lithography and Piezoresponse Force Microscopy of Patterned Pb(Zr0:52Ti0:48)O3 Microstructures
    Lining Lan Shuhong Xie Li Tan Jiangyu Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (5): 439-444. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (785KB)

    Sol-gel based soft lithography technique has been developed to pattern a variety of ferroelectric Pb(Zr0:52Ti0:48)O3 (PZT) microstructures, with feature size approaching 180 nm and good pattern transfer between the master mold and patterned films. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirm the perovskite structure of the patterned PZT. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy (SSPFM) confirm their piezoelectricity and ferroelec-
    tricity. Piezoresponse as high as 2.75 nm has been observed, comparable to typical PZT films. The patterned PZT microstructures are promising for a wide range of device applications.

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    Sol-gel Preparation and Infrared Radiation Property of Boron-substituted Cordierite Glass-ceramics
    Shuming Wang Fenghua Kuang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (5): 445-448. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (402KB)

    Boron for aluminum substitution in the cordierite structure has been examined by sol-gel preparation of different samples along the compositional junction Mg2Al4-xBxSi5O18 with x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5. By increasing the x value from 0 to 1.5 the crystallization behavior changed accordingly. Proper amount B2O3 doping can promote the sintering of amorphous cordierite gel, effectively restrain the precipitation of μ-cordierite and enhance the crystallization of α-cordierite. The substitution of B3+ for Al3+ in cordierite crystal structure can effectively improve the near-infrared spectral emissivity of this cordierite based glass-ceramics.

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    Fabrication of Porous Si3N4-Lu2Si2O7 Composite Ceramics
    Pengfei Zhang Litong Zhang Xiaowei Yin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (5): 449-453. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (617KB)

    To improve the corrosion resistance of porous Si3N4 used in the high temperature environments, which contain water vapor and volatile species, porous Si3N4-Lu2Si2O7 composite ceramics were fabricated by a process of oxidation bonding and pressureless sintering in flowing N2 atmosphere at the temperatures lower than 1550°C. The pores in ceramics were formed by removing the pore-forming agent (phenolic resin). SiO2 derived by the oxidation of Si3N4 at 1250°C in air reacted with Lu2O3 at various sintering temperatures, leading to the formation of Lu2Si2O7 with excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance. The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the porous ceramics depended on the sintering temperatures. Si3N4-Lu2Si2O7 composite ceramics with the porosity of 52% and the pore size of 0.2μm were obtained by oxidation bonding at 1250°C for 1 h and pressureless sintering at 1550°C for 2 h using 4 wt pct Lu2O3 additive.

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    Preparation and Compaction Behaviour of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Coated Iron Microparticles
    Daniela Kladekova Renata Orinakova Annamaria Krajnikova Miriam Kupkova Margita Kabatova Kveta Markusova
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (5): 454-460. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (544KB)

    The poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) coatings onto surface of iron particles were electrochemically prepared and the effect on both surface structure and internal structure of the resulted material after compaction was carried out. The electrochemical polymerization treatment was performed in a fluidized bed electrolyzer using sulphuric acid solution containing potassium persulphate and methyl methacrylate (MMA). The surface topography and the microstructure of the samples were observed by scanning electron  microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). It was found that the PMMA layer coated onto iron particles results in improvement of their compressibility compared with uncoated powders, and classical lubricants are not necessary for compacting particles coated.

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    Modeling and Simulations
    A New Analytical Model for the Flow Stress of Twin-roll Casting Magnesium Sheet at Elevated Temperatures
    Zhimin Liu Shuming Xing Peiwei Bao Nan Li Shuqing Yao Milan Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (5): 461-466. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (3078KB)

    To evaluate the flow stress of the twin-roll casting magnesium sheet in high temperature forming processes, a new analytical model was proposed by analyzing stress-strain curves measured under various temperatures and strain rates. The model can be parameterized to reflect the volume fraction of semi-sold grain and sold grains undergoing twinning. By applying the new model, the result showed that the simulated stress-strain curves fit the experiment data very well. Such curve fitting can be employed for any magnesium sheet when the deformation conditions are known. Microstructure evolution indicated that it affected the stress-strain curves directly. The mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) depended on the operating deformation mechanisms, which changed with temperatures. And the volume fraction and grain size of DRX changed with
    the Zener-Hollomon parameter and temperatures.

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    Three-dimensional Cure Simulation of Stiffened Thermosetting Composite Panels
    Guangquan Yue Boming Zhang Fuhong Dai Shanyi Du
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (5): 467-471. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (703KB)

    Stiffened thermosetting composite panels were fabricated with co-curing processing. In the co-curing processing, the temperature distribution in the composite panels was nonuniform. An investigation into the three-dimensional cure simulation of T-shape stiffened thermosetting composite panels was presented. Flexible tools and locating tools were considered in the cure simulation. Temperature distribution in the composites was predicted as a function of the autoclave temperature history. A nonlinear transient heat transfer finite element model was developed to simulate the curing process of stiffened thermosetting composite panels. And a simulation example was presented to demonstrate the use of the present finite element procedure for analyzing composite curing process. The glass/polyester structure was investigated to provide insight into
    the nonuniform cure process and the effect of flexible tools and locating tools on temperature distribution. Temperature gradient in the intersection between the skin and the flange was shown to be strongly dependent on the structure of the flexible tools and the thickness of the skin.

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    Mechenical and Functional Properties of Materials
    Effect of Bi2O3 Additive on the Microstructure and Dielectric Properties of BaTiO3-Based Ceramics Sintered at Lower Temperature
    Shunhua Wu Xuesong Wei Xiaoyong Wang Hongxing Yang Shunqi Gao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (5): 472-476. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (391KB)

    High performance X8R dielectric ceramics were prepared by doping Bi2O3 to BaTiO3-based ceramics. The effect of small amounts (≤1.2 mol%) of Bi2O3 additive on the microstructure and dielectric properties of BaTiO3-based ceramics have been investigated. The Bi2O3, acting as a sintering additive, can effectively lower the sintering temperature of BaTiO3-based ceramics from 1300 to 1130°C. The bulk density of BaTiO3-based ceramics increased and reached the maximum value with increasing Bi2O3 content. The dielectric constant increased with increasing Bi2O3 until it reached the maximum value with 0.8 mol% Bi2O3 additive, and the dielectric loss decreased with increasing Bi2O3 content. Optimal dielectric properties of ε=2470, tanδ=0.011 and Δε/ε25≤±9% (-55-150°C) were obtained for the BaTiO3-based ceramics doped with 0.8 mol% Bi2O3 sintered at 1130°C for 6 h.

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    Mechanical and Galvano-chemistry Property Variation within Dissimilar Metal Weld between 1Cr18Ni9Ti and 1Cr13 Stainless Steel
    Yongtao Zhao Junhui Dong Yonglin Ma Liping Zhao Xiaobing Pei
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (5): 477-480. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (563KB)

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the microstructure and properties variation of the weld metal in the dissimilar stainless steels during the argon tungsten-arc welding process. Because of the existence of different materials and chemistry variation within welds, properties, such as tensile and fracture properties and so on, are expected to show spatial variation. In the study, microstructures were observed by optical and electron microscopy. Good appearance and uniform structure and typical dendrite structure were observed in welding joint. The micro-hardness tester and electronic universal stretcher were used to measure the mechanical properties of the weldments and base metals. The heat affected zone (HAZ) near 1Cr13 hardness is up to peak value of 1150 HV, the strength of weldments is nearly same as austenite stainless steel. In addition,
    through seawater immersion test, polarization curves and AC impedance spectroscopy of the weldments and base metals are obtained. It was found that corrosion resistance at welding joint lies between 1C13 and 1Cr18Ni9Ti.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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