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      28 July 1998, Volume 14 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Articles
    Low Temperature Deposition of Titanium Nitride
    Lishi WEN and Rongfang HUANG (Insitute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyan 110015, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 289-293. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (627KB)
    Low temperature deposition (LTD) is an actual frontier in materials sicence and engineering, especially for thin film technology In this paper the fundamentals and processing of lew temperature deposition of TiN coating are reviewed. The prerequisites of a law temperature deposition process are enough good densification, hardness and adhesion of the deposited coating. The fundamentals Of low temperature deposition are Structure zone model and nonequilibrium plasma vapor growth in a combined DC and pulsed electromagnetic fields. namely a combination of a DC bias voltage superimposed by a DC pulsed bias voltage with variable frequency and peak voltage height. Low temperature deposition processing can be realized simply with only stationary eledric fields. However, sensitivity of the product quality to the process parameters is the main barrier of this processing in the way to mass production. Low temperature deposition processing using the effects of a combined DC and pulsed electromagnetic fields has attained some promising results for the future commercialization. But they need Still further Systematic and deep study The application of low temperature deposition processing is nOt limited in range of low melting substrate materials. It is also important for internal stress control, defect minimization, microstructure densification and pedermance improvement for coatings on broad spectrum of substrate materials as well as for different types of applications.
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    Film-induced Tensile Stress during CorrosionProcess for α-Ti
    Hong LU; Kewei GAO and Wuyng CHU(Dept. of Materials Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 294-298. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (513KB)
    The α-Ti foil with protective layer in one side bended to corrosion surface gradually during corrosion process in 0.1 mol/L H2SO4, while the passive film was formed, i.e., a tensile stress was developed in the surface layer of the sample. The extra tensile Stress grew gradually, whose maximum value is =313 MPa (average of 5 samples), which is near or reaches the yield stress. The extra tensile stress would be added to the load Stress during SCC to facilitate the emission and motion of dislocation, so that SCC cracks could nucleate in lower Stress(or lower KI).
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    Effects of Solid Solution Treating on the Microstructureand Damping Behaviour of MnCuNiFe Alloys
    Fuxing YIN, Y. Ohsawa and A.Sato (National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047, Japan)K.Aawahara(B.B.Materia Co. Ltd., Chiba-Shi, Chiba 267-0066, Japan)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 299-307. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2435KB)
    A high damping condition is easily obtained in Mn-(16~24)Cu-(4~6)Ni-2Fe (at. pct) alloys,when cooling rate is controlled after the solid solution treatment at 1173 K. It is observed that the temperature dependent changes of Iogarithmic decrement in 10 h cooled samples are sensitive to the alloy composition. As compared with water quenching treatment, controlled 10 h cooling improves TN temperature of the alloys extensively by producing a Mn-enriched matrix portion in the alloys. Calcuiations suggest that the relative decreases of Cu and Ni content in the matrix portion be dominated by the Ni content in the original alloys, and therefore, the volume fraction of the Cu, Ni-enriched precipitates is estimated to be about 20% and 10% in the 4Ni and 6Ni alloys, respectively. As a result, the TN temperature fOr each alloy, corresponding to the rising temperature of logarithmic decrement, has been related to the Cu, and Ni content in the Mnenriched matrix. The existence of {110} twinning boundaries is confirmed in the microstructure of both 4Ni and 6Ni alloys. However, the relative lattice strains, which the twinning boundaries act to accommodate, are found largely different in the two alloys. It is considered that boundaries with smaller orientation deviation could coordinate the external Stresses easily by cyclic moving, and therefore, the broader damping peak which occurs in the 10 h cooled 6Ni alloy becomes feasible. Electron diffraction results also indicate possible for mation of many sub-crystals in the matrix phase, which are relatively rotated on some invariant planes. Those sub-crystal boundaries might play some attenuation roles in the temperature range between TN and room temperature.
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    Powder Microstructure and Overlay Coating Property ofNiCrAlY Alloy
    Xinchun CHANG; Jianqiang WANG; Yunyan HAO; Wanliang HOU and Zhuangqi HU (State Key Lab. of RSA, Institute of Metal Research, Academia Sinica, Shenyang 110015, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 308-312. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (3144KB)
    The microstructural features of NiCrAlY alloy powders with different particle size fractions and their effects on the overlay coating property have been investigated. It is shown that the finer (20~30 μm) powder particles experience rapid recalescence and heat extraction to the surroundings resulting in microcellular structure, whereas the coarser (40~50μm) powder particles exhibit a coarse cellular and dendritic mixed structure because of recalescence followed by slow cooling.In addition, it is also indicated that the finer the powder particle sizes, the higher the mechanical property and the metallurgical thermal stability of the overlay coatings deposited by as-atomized powders, which is presumably attributed to the formation of dense fine grain Structure and oxide layer for the fine size fraction of the powders.
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    Inhibitive Effect of Some Aldehydes on Corrosion ofAl-3Mg Alloy in Acid Solutions
    I.Z.Selim (Physical Chemistry Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 313-319. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (675KB)
    The inhibitive action of some aldehydes towards the corrosion of Al-3Mg alloy in 2M hydrochloric acid solution has been invedigated using polarization and weight loss measurements. The two methods give the same order of inhibition effeciency Polarization Studies reveal that cathodic polarization is more pronounced than anodic one. The results indicate that all the compounds Studied are excellent corrosion inhibitors and the percentage efficiency varying with both the type and concentration of the inhibitor and being in the following order: p-methoxy-benzaldehyde (1)>benzaldehyde (2)>p-chlorobenzaldehyde (3)> p-nitrobenzaldehyde (4). The degree of surface coverage of the adsorbed additives was determined and the results obey the Langmuir isotherm.Effect of temperature on the corrosion rate in absence and prance of different concentrations of the used inhibitors was investigated using weight loss measurements. The results indicate that the corrosion rate rapidly increases with increasing temperature. Arrhenius parameters have been calculated and discussed.
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    Calculation of Surface Energy of Metals and Alloys by theElectron Density Functional Method
    VM.Kuznetsov, R.I.Kadyrov and G.E.Rudenskii (Institute of Strength Physics and Material Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch.Academicheskii av. 2/1, 634048 Tomsk, Russia)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 320-322. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (301KB)
    The surface energy values of (100), (110), (111) surfaces in Ni. Al and ordered alloys NiAl and Ni3Al have been calculated within the framework of methodology based upon the electron density functional method. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the known for pure metals experimental data and in case of Ni3Al allop There is also a good agreement with the results obtained by calculation using the embedded atom method. The investigation has been carried out in this work to show that the surface energy σ of alloys can not be interpreted as an averaged concentration σ of pure metals. For NiAl, the obtained resulsts reveal considerable distinctions in anisotropy of a in comparison to the anisotropy of surface energy in pure matals.
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    Comparison of the Thermomagnetic and Thermal Effects duringNanocrystallization of Amorphous Fe_(76.5-x)Cu_1Nb_xSi_(13.5)B_9 Alloys
    B.Varga and Tak■cs(Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Technology Technical University of Budapest, H-1111 Budapest Bertalan L. utca 2., Hungary) A.Lovas and P.Kamasa(Research Institute for Solid State Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest,
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 323-326. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (361KB)
    The results of thermomagnetic (TM) and calorimetric (DSC) measurements have been compared in order to clarify some details of the mechanism of nanophase-formation from Finemet-type precursors with different Nb contents. It was found that the main features of the DSC thermograms (shape, relative separation and amplitude of the exothermic peaks characteristic for the precipitation of the Fe-(Si) solid solution and the transition metal borides) depend mainly on the composition of the precursor glass, and are only slightly affected by the heating rate between 20 and 80 K/min. The amplitude of the uprise of the magnetization in the TM curves (attributed to the precipitation of bcc-Fe(Si) and borides) decreases with increasing Nb-content. The Curietemperature of the precursor glasses. Tc(am1), the remainder amorphous phases, Tc(am2) and the bcc nanophase, Tc(n-Fe) are determined from the thermomagnetic curves. The shape of the TM curves is interpreted on the basis of the reactions describing the crystalIization of the hypo-eutectic Fe-B glasses.
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    Microstructure of Differently Annealed NanocrystallineFe_(72.7)Cu_1Nb_(1.8)Mo_2Si_(13)B_(9.5) Alloy
    YanZhong ZHANG and Huijuan JIN (Shanghai Key Lab. of Metallic Functional Materials, Shanghai Iron and Steel Research Institute,Shanghai 200940, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 327-330. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1518KB)
    The microstructure of differently annealed nanocrystalline Fe72.7Cu1Nb1.8Mo2Si13B9.5 alloy was investigated by using Mssbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope. The specimens were isochronally annealed at temperatures between 480℃ and 600℃ for 0.5 h. The experimental results show that the microstructure mainly consists of the nanoscale bcc α-Fe(Si) grains and the residual amorphous matrix phase. A trace paramagnetic phase was found for annealing about above 500℃. The volume fraction of cr-Fe(Si) grain increases with increasing annealing temperature, whereas the average size of grain is almost unchanged above 480℃ up to 580℃. The calculated thickness of the intergranular layer of the residual amorphous matrix clearly decreases with increasing annealing temperature.
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    Influence of Hot Isostatic Pressing on Microstructuresand Properties of NiAl/Cr(Mo)-TiC in-situMultiphase Composites
    Dongtao JIANG and Jianting GUO (Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyan 110015, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 331-334. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2354KB)
    A novel in-situ multiphase NiAl-based composite was investigated on its microstructures and properties influenced by HIP treatment. In the as- processed composites, a fine array of NiAl precipitates was found to be distributed in Cr(Mo) phase. TiC particles tended to segregate at grain or phase boundaries. In addition, a number of dislocations were observed to exist in NiAl grains meanwhile fewer in Cr(Mo) grains. Little change in the morphology was found except that nearly fully densification was achieved. Some changes in microstructures were notable including coarsening of NiAl precipitates in Cr(Mo) phase and increase in dislocation density in NiAl phase.After HIP, the strength of the composites increased significantly compared with the as-processed composites. The reason for the enhanced Strength of the composites is also discussed.
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    Surface-compositional and Angular Distributions duringCu-Pt Sputtering
    LiPing ZHENG (Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China) Risheng LI (Lab. of Atomic Imaging of Solids, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110015, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 335-338. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (406KB)
    Under 1 keV Ar ion bombardment of Cu-Pt alloys at high fluence and low temperature, the depletion degree of the segregating species at the second surface layer, and the normalized sputtering yield ratios (non-segregating species/segregating species) in the near-normal direction (15°) and at oblique angle (75°), have been estimated by an improved kinetic BIGS (bombardment-induced Gibbsian segregation) model. For the bombarded Cu-Pt alloys, calculations show that the depletion degree of the segregating species at the second surface layer is small when its bulk composition equals the extreme value, but this depletion degree becomes large when its bulk composition equals the intermediate value. Furthermore, the difference of the normalized sputtering yield ratio between 15° and 75° is small when the buIk composition of the segregating species equals the extreme value, but this difference becomes large when that of the segregating species equals the intermediate value.
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    Corrosion Behaviour and Chloride Attack of Reinforcing Steel in Presence of Concrete Admixtures
    I.Z.Selim (Physical Chemistry Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 339-343. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (490KB)
    Corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of reinforcing steel embedded in cement pastes with and without concrete admixtures used in Egypt to modify concrete properties have been studied. The influence of the admixtures on the corrosion resistance of the steel against chloride attack has been studied using impressed current and impressed voltage techniques. The results indicate that the type and concentration of the admixture used have an important effed on the extent of chloride induced corrosion of the steel. The mechanism of corrosion of steel due to chloride attack is discussed.
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    Infrared, Diffuse Reflectance and Dielectric Studies ofAntimony Trisulphide
    Z.M.Hanafi, F.M.Ismai and M.Sb.Khalil (Inorganic Chemistry Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 344-348. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (490KB)
    Infrared absorption spectra of orange, black and transferred Sb2S3 samples have been Studied in the spectral range 200~4000cm-1. The pronounced difference between the different samples is the appearance of excess sulphur present in the orange and transferred samples except those of transferred at 543 K and the black Sb2S3. The change of sharpness of some IR peaks reveals the amorphous/crystalline change. The effect of the degree of crystallinity and stoichiometry on the energy gap values was investigated using optical method. The obtained dielectric parameters ε'and ε" of the different samples are thoroughly afFected by the degree of cryStallinity and smoothly affected by either the frequency or the temperature or both, except at lower frequencies.
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    Mobility of Various Intervariant Interfaces in 18R Martensitein a Cu-Zn-Al AlloyPart Ⅱ: Some Theoretical Considerations
    Jianxin ZHANG; Yufeng ZHENG; Wei CAI and Liancheng ZHAO (School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, 150001, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 349-352. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (469KB)
    Detailed crystallographic analysis has been undertaken on the various combinations Of 24 martensite variants in the 18R martensite of a Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy. Based upon the calculated crystallographic data, the interface energy of different twin interfaces was calculated using a lowangle-grain-interface model. For the variant/variant pairs in a self-accommodating group. the A/C type and A/B type interfaces have low interface energy, and A/D type interface is an intermediate one. In contrast, the intervariant interfaces that belong to different plate groups have high intrface energy. The calculated results are consiStent with the previous observations of the mobility of intervariant interfaces.
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    Aging Effect on Elapsed Time of Serrations in Al-Li Single Crystals
    Baohui TIAN and Minggao YAN (Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, PO Box 81-2, Beijing 100095, China) changqi CHEN (Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 353-356. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1510KB)
    Elapsed time of serrations in Al-Li single crystals was investigated with two definitions: one is the time elapsed in one cycle of serrations, the other is the average elapsed time within a strain limit.Elapsed time of individual serration appears independent on stress drops during serrated flow. It primarily distributes within the limits of short elapsed time in peak aged condition compared with underaged and overaged conditions, corresponding to low level of the average elapsed time that appears indifferent to increasing strain. It seems that shearing behaviour of δ' particles could be responsible for the variations in elapsed time of serrations.
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    Simultaneous Thermoluminescence and Thermally Stimulated Current in Polyamide
    Yong FAN; Xuan WANG; Xiaohong ZHANG; Jiaqi LIN and Qingquan LEI (Dept. of Elect. Mater. Eng., Harbin University of Science and Technology Harbin 150040, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 357-360. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (367KB)
    We have obtained simultaneous thermoluminescence (TL) and thermally Stimulated current (TSC) spectra in two types of polyamide film, such as nylons 6 and 11 under study of electron detrapping and recombination. There are three main relaxation peaks or regions, designated γ,β and α in order of increasing temperature in the TSC spectra, in contrast, a high temperature relaxation peak in TL spectra disappears. The centers or peaks of these relaxation regions are located at near 180, 230 and 310 K, respectively, deviating±10 K. However. we also observed two anomalous phenomena: first, a very large, short-circuited, thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) up to 10-8 A, but reversible in direction for non-polarized nylons 6 and 11, even after several times repeatedly; secondly, no TL signal except for non-polarized nylon 6 film.
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    Physical and Dielectric Properties of Some Nonionic Surfactants
    I.M.EI-Anwar (National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt)S.A.El-Henawii (Faculty of Science, Helwan University Egypt)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 361-367. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (759KB)
    Fatty acid esters have been prepared by reacting the acid C18 with polyethylene glycols having varying numbers of Oxythylene units (4~88 units) by the direct eSterification reaction method.Surface and interfacial tensions are studied at various experimental conditions, including, concentration, temperature, and chemical constitution of the surfactants. Critical micelle concentrations (CMC), surface excess Г and residual area occupied by each surface active agent molecule A have been calculated using Gibb's equation. CMC values range from 10 to 55x10-5 mole/L for all studied agents, while the residual area occupied by each molecule varies from 0.6 to 1.5 nm2. Variation of CMC of some of these agents with temperature have been also examined and data obtained are used to calculate the heat of micellization △Hm and the entropy change during micellization △Sm. Values of △Hm varies from 14.63 kJ/mole to 2.717 kJ/mole depending on the chemical constitution of the agent under consideration. The apparent dipole moments μ of three surfactants were measured following the Headstrand's method. Values of μ are 3.24, 3.14 and 3.02 D for stearates. oleates. and linoleates adducts with polyethylene glycol (1000).
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    Study of Origin of Shape Memory Effect for TiNi Alloy byPositron Annihilation
    Jingcheng WANG and Anqiang YOU (Shanghai Key Lab. of Metal-functional Materials and Research Center, Shanghai Iron & Steel Research Institute,Shanghai 200940, China) Jinlin QI and Xuefeng TANG (Physics Dept., Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 368-370. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1091KB)
    A number of specimens of Ti-51Ni (at. pct) allOy showing reversible shape memory effect (RSME) have been measured as to reversibility and S-lineshape parameter of positron annihilation. It is found that the Ti-51Ni specimens showing good memory effect contain Structural defects. Not all specimens including Structural defects (or Structural impedrition) are able to exhibit good memory effect. The structural defects have to be appropriate in density neither too much nor too little. With no or too much Structural defects a good RSME could not take place. It is fully as important that the Structural defects exist as it is for the structural defects to be appropriate in density in order to obtain a good RSME.
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    An Anomalous Kerr Loop of LaBaMnO Thin Film
    Bihui HOU; Qinlun XU; Shizhuo JI; Tianpei ZHANG and Peng PENG (Dept. of Physics, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China) Changhe SHANG and Yinjun WANG (State Key Lab. of Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 371-373. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (995KB)
    An anomalous Kerr loop was observed in an oriented LaBaMno film annealed in oxygen. Many tiny crystal columns were observed with scanning tunneling microscope and magnetic force microscope. The magnetic moment m in the column is perpendicular outward to the surface, which forms a surface phase with spin pinning state. This spin pinning results in the obvious asymmetrical Kerr loop of magneto-optical effect when the magnetic field is in the two opposite directions vertical to the surface.
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    Fabrication of Bi(2223)/Ag Superconducting Tapes withRectangular Cross Section by Hydrostatic Extrusion
    Yanwei MA and Xanjin WANG (Dept. of Metal Forming, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China)Zutang WANG (Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 374-376. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1877KB)
    Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 superconducting tapes with rectangular cross section were fabricated by hydrostatic extrusion. Microstructural analysis, microhardness measurement and X-ray diffraction have been carried out. The field dependence of the critical current density was investigated at 77 K. The rectangular shaped specimens show a higher density of oxide core. better grain alignment and less weak-linked microstructure compared to the traditional specimens.
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    A New Method for Determining J_(IC) of High StrengthHigh Fracture Toughness Steels by SingleThree Point Bend Specimen
    Ping GENG; M.K.Tseng and Cunfu QIAN (College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110006, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 377-379. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (269KB)
    A single three point bend specimen compliance method for determining JIC of high strength high fracture toughness steels is presented and a formula for calculatinff J-integral is proposed as follows.It is simple and valid for high strength high fracture toughness steels. The values of JIC and KIC measured by this method are in good agreement with those measured by standard test method.
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    Thermodynamic Calculation of A_(r3) Temperature inLow Alloy Steels
    Jinbo QU; Zhenyu LIU; Xianghua LIU and Guodong WANG (State Key Lab. of Rolling and Automation, Northeatern University Shenyang 110006, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 380-382. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (304KB)
    On the basis of superelement model, Cahn's transformation kinetics theory and Scheil's additivity rule, actual γ/α transformation start temperature, A.3 in Fe-Σ Xi-C (Xi=Mn, Si, Ni, Mo etc.)multi-component low alloy Steels during continuous cooling process was calculated. Influences of chemical composition, hot deformation of γ and cooling rate on Ar3 temperature were analyzed. Calculated Ar3 temperatures are in reasonable agreement with measured ones.
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    Nucleation of Bainite around Grain Boundary
    Rong SHEN; Juqiang CHENG; Liuding WANG and Mokuang KANG (Dept. of Mater. Sci. & Eng., Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China)
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1998, 14 (4): 383-384. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1729KB)
    The scanning Auger microprobe study on Fe-8Mn-1C alloy shows that the carbon atoms segregate at grain boundary during bainitic transformation and solute atoms depleted regions form near the grain boundary The observation of optical and TEM indicates that bainite nucleates in solute atoms depleted regions near the grain boundary.
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