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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      28 March 2001, Volume 17 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Research Articles
    A self-consistent calculation and an anisotropic wavelength cutoff energy of spin-wave spectrum in magnetic tunnel junctions
    Xiufeng HAN, Terunobu Miyazaki
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 197-202. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (216KB)
    Temperature dependence of tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio, resistance, and coercivity from 4.2 K to room temperature (RT), applied de bias voltage dependence of the TMR ratio and resistances at 4.2 K and RT, tunnel current I and dynamic conductance dI/dV as functions of the de bias voltage at 4.2 K, and inelastic electron tunneling (IET) spectroscopy, d(2)I/dV(2) versus V, at 4.2 K for a tunnel junction of Ta(5 nm)/Ni79Fe21(25 nm)/Ir22Mn78(12 nm)/Co75Fe25(4 nm)/Al(0.8 nm)-oxide/Co75Fe25(4 nm)/Ni79Fe21(25 nm)/Ta(5 nm) were systematically investigated. High TMR ratio of 59.2% at 4.2 K and 41.3% at RT were observed for this junction after annealing at 275℃ for an hour. The temperature dependence of TMR ratio and resistances from 4.2 to 300 K at 1.0 mV bias and the de bias voltage dependence of TMR ratio at 4.2 K from 0 to 80 mV can be evaluated by a comparison of self-consistent calculations with the experimental data based on the magnon-assisted inelastic excitation model and theory. An anisotropic wavelength cutoff energy of spin-wave spectrum in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) was suggested, which is necessary for self-consistent calculations, based on a series of IET spectra observed in the MTJs.
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    Effects of plastic deformation and stresses on dilatation during the martensitic transformation in a B-bearing steel
    M. C.Somani, L.P.Karjalainen, M. Oldenburg, M.Eriksson
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 203-206. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (127KB)
    To provide data for improved modelling of the behaviour of steel components in a simultaneous forming and quenching process, the effects of plastic deformation and stresses on dilatation during the martensitic transformation in a B-bearing steel were investigated. It was found that plastic deformation of austenite at high temperatures enhances ferrite formation significantly, and consequently the dilatation decreases markedly even at a cooling rate of 280 degreesC/s. The created ferritic-martensitic microstructure possesses clearly lower hardness and strength than the martensitic structure. Elastic stresses cause the preferred orientation in martensite to be formed so that diametric dilatation can increase by nearly 200% under axial compression.
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    Diffusion of hydrogen along the grain boundaries in Ni3Al alloys
    Xiaoying CHENG, Xiaojing WAN, Qiuyun WU, Xiukui SUN
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 207-210. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (186KB)
    The diffusivity of hydrogen in two Ni3Al alloys (No.1 and No.2) has been measured in the temperature range of 100℃ to 420℃ using an ultrahigh vacuum gaseous permeation technique. The diffusivity data fall into two segments, in which the hydrogen diffusivity adheres to the Arrhenius form, respectively. From the hydrogen diffusivity, it is conjectured that the hydrogen diffusivity reflects the hydrogen transportation along the grain boundaries at lower temperature and the hydrogen transportation in the lattice at higher temperature. The intergranular fracture of Lit-type intermetallics induced by hydrogen at relative low temperature results from hydrogen transportation along the grain boundaries and not in the lattice.
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    A numerical study of localized plastic deformation in polycrystals
    Chengjiang HUANG, Dianzhong LI, Changrong CHEN, Yiyi LI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 211-214. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (210KB)
    A finite element formulation which derives constitutive response from crystal plasticity theory was used to examine localized deformation in fee polycrystals. The polycrystal model was an idealized planar array of 22 hexagonal grains. The constitutive description used is based on a finite strain kinematical theory that accounts for lattice rotations. Formation of shear bands was successfully modeled in both single crystal and polycrystals. Stress and strain distribution around triple junctions was also analyzed. Results show the distributions of stresses and strains are distinctly inhomogeneous. Stress and strain fields across grain boundaries are highly discontinuous. However, this discontinuity will be restrained when shear bands are fully developed.
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    Thermal activation analyses of dynamic fracture toughness of high strength low alloy steels
    Cunjian LI, Shaohua LI, Yuqing DENG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 215-218. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (162KB)
    A formula is derived for determining the influence of temperature and loading rate on dynamic fracture toughness of a high strength low alloy steel (HQ785C) from thermal activation analysis of the experimental results of three-point bend specimens as well as introducing an Arrhenius formula. It is shown that the results obtained by the given formula are in good agreement with the experimental ones in the thermal activation region. The present method is also valuable to describe the relationship between dynamic fracture toughness and temperature and loading rate of other high strength low alloy steels.
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    Experimental study on uniaxial and multiaxial strain cyclic characteristics and ratcheting of 316L stainless steel
    GuoZheng KANG, Qing GAO, Lixun CAI, Xianjie YANG, Yafang SUN
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 219-223. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (267KB)
    An experimental study was carried out on the strain cyclic characteristics and ratcheting of 316L stainless steel subjected to uniaxial and multiaxial cyclic loading. The strain cyclic characteristics were researched under the strain-controlled uniaxial tension-compression and multiaxial circular paths of loading. The ratcheting tests were conducted for the stress-controlled uniaxial tension-compression and multiaxial circular, rhombic and linear paths of loading with different mean stresses, stress amplitudes and histories. The experiment results show that 316L stainless steel features the cyclic hardening, and its strain cyclic characteristics depend on the strain amplitude and its history apparently. The ratcheting of 316L stainless steel depends greatly on the Values of mean stress, stress amplitude and their histories. In the meantime, the shape of load path and its history also apparently influence the ratcheting.
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    Study on steel-mushy Al-20Sn alloy bonding
    Peng ZHANG, Yunhui DU, Daben ZENG, Jianzhong CUI, Limin BA
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 224-228. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (230KB)
    Steel-mushy Al-20Sn alloy bonding was studied for the first time. The relationship model about preheat temperature of steel plate, solid fraction of Al-20Sn alloy mushy, rolling speed and interfacial shear strength of bonding plate could be established by artificial neural networks perfectly. This model could be optimized with a genetic algorithm. The optimum bonding parameters were: 505℃ for preheat temperature of steel plate, 34.3% for solid fraction of Al-20Sn alloy mushy and 10 mm/s for rolling speed, and the largest interfacial shear strength of bonding plate was 71.2 MPa.
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    Some physical properties of CuTlSe alloy
    A.Abdel All, K.A.Sharaf, A.Elshafie
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 229-232. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (153KB)
    The structure and optical properties of Cu0.1Tl2Se3 alloy was studied. X-ray analysis showed that the polycrystalline powder consists of a mixture of two phases Cu3TlSe2 (monoclinic) and TlSe (tetragonal). Chalcopyrite phase CuTlSe2 can be obtained by annealing the powder at 250 ℃ for 1 h. Thin film with a monoclinic phase of Cu3TlSe2 was obtained for the thick film (0.7 mum). The optical parameters alpha, n, k, epsilon' and epsilon " and the energy gap were calculated. The thermoelectric power measurements showed that S has a positive polarity over the whole range of temperature.
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    Effects of temperature and [S] on the kinetics of nitrogen removal from liquid steel
    Jie FU, Shixiang ZHOU, Ping WANG, Lin DI, Jian ZHU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 233-236. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (151KB)
    The kinetics of denitrogenation from liquid steel was studied by using an oxygen-nitrogen analysis system(LECO TC-436) under 1600℃ similar to 2813℃ conditions. The results show that when [S]=0.005%, nitrogen removal was controlled by nitrogen transfer in liquid diffusion layer, when [S]=0.012% and 0.140%, it was controlled by both nitrogen transfer in liquid diffusion layer and the chemical reaction at the liquid-gas interface below 2250℃, and by nitrogen transfer in liquid diffusion layer under 2250℃ similar to 2813 degreesC conditions. The activation energy E-a was 57 kJ/mol for 0.0050%[S], 95 kJ/mol for 0.012%[S], 165 kJ/mol for 0.140%[S]. The resistance of sulphur on nitrogen removal decreased with the temperature rose, and disappeared at 2630℃. Based on the results obtained, it has been answered why the nitrogen in liquid steel can be decreased rapidly by carbon-oxygen reaction under very high oxygen and sulphur content conditions during the BOF, EAF, VOD and AOD steelmaking processes.
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    Use of a Laser/TIG combination for surface modification of Ti-6Al-4V alloy
    M.Labudovic, R.Kovacevic
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 237-239. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (384KB)
    The surface modification of materials such as Ti-6Al-4V is necessary to improve their wear resistant properties for use in tribological applications, in this paper it is shown that a laser with low power and tungsten inert gas (TIG) can be combined together for surface modification of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and when performed in a controlled atmosphere of pure nitrogen or a mixture of nitrogen and argon, can produce a wear-resistant surface alloy. Compared with laser processing, a cheaper surface modification process has been developed involving a shorter processing time, which is free of stringent requirements such as a vacuum system.
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    A fast algorithm for phase grating preparation by real space method
    Qiuxiang LIU, Yuanming WANG, Qibin YANG, Xiaohong YAN
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 240-242. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (119KB)
    Based on a definitely integral formula, an expression of calculating atomic potential distribution function U(r) in a unit cell is derived as follows: Making use of this expression to calculate the phase grating in high resolution image simulation can greatly reduce the calculating time. In this paper, the derivation of the expression is introduced, and then the computer routine is explained in details. Finally the potential projection map of Mg44Rh7 along [001] direction is shown as an illustration. All operations are carried out in real space, so we call the calculation method as the real space method.
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    Chemical kinetic aspects of solid state reaction producing wollastonite from rice husk silica and limestone
    M.S.Nizami, M.Z.Iqbal
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 243-246. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (155KB)
    An industrial mineral wollastonite (CaSiO3) was produced under solid state conditions from rice husk silica and limestone. Reaction was carried out at 900 degreesC to 1300 degreesC for 1 h. The product batches were subjected to XRD and chemical analysis techniques specific for wollastonite. Mole fractions of different product batches were calculated on the basis of accumulated data to study the kinetics. Specific rate constants and reaction rate were also found out. Various probable models of mechanism for reaction were considered and testified with the laid down criterion for suggesting the suitable one. The resulting data were treated with Arrhenius equation as well and activation energy was calculated-therefrom. In addition to finding it's value from the slope of Arrhenius curve, an alternate method was also applied for this purpose. Both of the values were observed to be comparable. The activation energy required for performed reaction was found to be almost one third of that reported for synthesizing CaSiO3 by using quartz. This referred to the economical preparation of wollastonite by using rice husk as a source of silica instead of quartz.
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    Surface modification of AB(2) and AB(5) hydrogen storage alloy electrodes by the hot-charging treatment
    Bo YU, Lian CHEN, Mingfen WEN, Ming TONG, Demin CHEN, Yanwen TIAN, Yuchun ZHAI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 247-251. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (267KB)
    The effect of the hot-charging treatment on the performance of AB(2) and AB(5) hydrogen storage alloy electrodes was investigated. The result showed that the treatment can markedly improve the voltage plateau ratio (VPR), the high rate discharge ability (HRDA), the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen DH and the discharge capacity of the AB2 hydrogen storage alloy electrode. The SEM analysis showed that the hot-charging treatment brings about a Ni-rich surface due to the dissolution of Zr oxides. It is also very helpful for the improvement of the kinetic properties of AB2 hydrogen storage alloy electrode because the microcracking of the surface results in fresh surface. This can be the basic modification treatment for NiMH battery used in electric vehicles (EVs) in the future. But for AB(5) type alloys, the treatment has the disadvantage of impairing the comprehensive electrochemical properties, because the surface of the alloy may be corroded during the treatment. The mechanism of the surface modification of the electrode is also proposed.
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    Distribution of inherent strains and residual stresses in medium thickness plate weldment
    Peng HE, Jiuhai ZHANG, Toshio Terasaki, Testuya Akiyama
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 252-256. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (207KB)
    A fundamental theory for the analysis of residual welding stresses and deformation based on the inherent strain distribution along the welded joint is introduced. Distribution of inherent strains and longitudinal residual stresses in medium thickness plate weldment is calculated and analyzed. A new method of calculating inherent strains and longitudinal residual stresses is proposed.
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    Stress-induced precipitation of fine gamma '-phase and thermodynamics analysis
    Sugui TIAN, Jinghua ZHANG, Yongbo XU, Zhuangqi HU, Hongcai YANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 257-259. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (374KB)
    The microstructures of a single crystal Ni-base superalloy with [001] orientation were observed by means of TEM. Results showed that the fine gamma' particles were precipitated in the gamma matrix channels during the tensile deformation of the alloy. Thermodynamics analysis indicated that the solubility of elements M(Al,Ta) within the gamma matrix may be changed when the alloy was deformed by the external applied stress. The tensile stress reduced the solubility of elements Al and Ta so as to occur the over-saturation and agglomeration of them, which promoted the precipitation of fine gamma'-phase in the gamma matrix.
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    Ferromagnetic Fe-based amorphous alloy with high glass-forming ability
    Min XU, Mingxiu QUAN, Zhuangqi HU, Lizhi CHENG, Kaiyuan HE
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 260-262. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (110KB)
    A ferromagnetic amorphous Fe73Al4Ge2Nb1P10C6B4 alloy with high glass-forming ability was synthesized by melt spinning. The supercooled liquid region before crystallization reaches about 65.7 K. The crystallized structure consists of alpha -Fe, Fe3B, FeB, Fe3P and Fe3C phases. The Fe-based amorphous alloy exhibits good magnetic properties with a high saturation magnetization and a low saturated magnetostriction. The crystallization leads to an obvious decrease in the soft magnetic properties.
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    Effect of thermal cycling under load on martensite transformation and two-way shape memory effect in a TiNi alloy
    Liming WANG, Yufeng ZHENG, Wei CAI, Xianglong MENG, Liancheng ZHAO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 263-266. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (250KB)
    The effect of thermal cycling under loading on martensitic transformation and two-way shape memory effect was investigated for Ti-49.8 at, pet Ni alloy. It is shown that M-s, and M-f temperature increase with increasing the number of cycles, while A(s) and A(f) temperature decrease during thermal cycling. The total strain at and permanent strain epsilon (p) increase with increasing applied stress and number of cycles. The two-way shape memory effect can be improved by proper thermal cycling training under loading, while excessively high applied stress results in the deterioration of TWSME. The reason for the changes in martensitic transformation characteristics and two-way shape memory effect during thermal cycling under loading is discussed based on the analysis of microstructure by TEM observations.
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    Influence of al composition on the microstructure of B alloyed Ni3Al synthesized under compression
    M.V.Fedorischeva, O.B.Perevalova, V.E.Ovcharenko, B. V.Kozlov
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 267-270. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (251KB)
    It was shown by TEM and X-ray analysis that Ni3Al is the main phase of the intermetallic synthesized under compression from the powder mixture of Ni with Al alloyed by B. The Ni3B is a secondary phase. The value of the lattice parameter of the intermetallic Ni3Al with and without B increases when the concentration of Al increases. The increase in Al concentration from 23.5 to 25.0 in the initial powder mixture leads to decreasing the solubility of B in the Ni3Al phase.
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    Nitriding of hard Fe electrodeposition and its effects on wear resistance
    Chenghui GAO, Dajian CHEN, Baiyang ZHOU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 271-274. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (326KB)
    Nitriding is employed for the hard Fe electrodeposition to produce a hard-facing and antiwear coating. It only takes 1 h for the hard Fe coating, which is much shorter than nitriding the Fe and steel. The results showed that the nitriding can increase the microhardness, wear resistance of the coating, as well as the bonding strength of the coating with the substrate. Additionally it can eliminate the brittleness, turn the internal stress of the coating from tension to compression. The wear resistance of the nitrided Fe coating is 4.6 times as high as that of Cr coating. It is simple and economic to combine hard Fe electroplating and nitriding, which is a good technology of the tribological surface modification.
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    Development of mathematical model on preparation of functionally graded material by Co-sedimentation
    Zhongmin YANG, Lianmeng ZHANG, Qiang SHEN
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 275-277. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (110KB)
    From the process of sedimentation the mathematical relationships among deposition Volume and powder properties as well as sedimentation parameters were deduced. Based on the formula a mathematical model was set up and simulated through the computer. At last the validity of mathematical model was supported by the representative experiment on Ti-Mo system FGM prepared by co-sedimentation.
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    Dielectric properties of some berate glasses
    Z.A.El-Hadi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 278-282. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (179KB)
    The dielectric constant, epsilon', and the dielectric loss, epsilon ", for some selected lead berate glasses within the frequency band 10(5) to 10(7) Hz and the temperature range (20 similar to 50)degreesC were measured. The dielectric dispersion and the dielectric loss absorption bands were observed. the relaxation time, the activation enthalpy and entropy change of the dielectric relaxation were calculated. The results obtained were discussed and correlated to the internal network structure of the glasses studied.
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    Rare earth application in sealing anodized AL-based metal matrix composites
    Xingwen YU, Chunan CAO, Chuanwei YAN, Zhiming YAO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 283-284. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (60KB)
    A new method for corrosion protection of Al-based metal matrix composites (MMC) was developed using two-step process, which involves anodizing in H2SO4 solution and sealing in rare earth solution. Corrosion resistance of the treated surface was evaluated with polarization curves. The results showed that the effect of the protection using rare earth sealing is equivalent to that using chromate sealing for Al6061/SiCp. The rare earth metal salt can be an alternative to the toxic chromate for sealing anodized Al MMC.
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    Magnetic properties and structure of nanocrystalline Nd4.5Fe76Co1B18.5 alloys
    Wenli PEI, Fazeng LIAN, Guiqin ZHOU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 285-286. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (84KB)
    In this paper, the technology, structures and magnetic properties of Nd4.5Fe76Co1B18.5 nanocomposite magnets were investigated. The effect of crystallizing treatment temperature and time on structures and magnetic properties of Nd4.5Fe76Co1B18.5 amorphous ribbons was studied. The results show that Nd4.5Fe76Co1B18.5 containing more analogue metals is easy to form a morphous. The magnetic properties of 16 m/s quenched ribbon for 710 degrees Cx900 s crystallizing treatment reach H-i(c)=242.1 kA/m, B-r=0.9410 T and (BH)(max)=59.64 kJ/m(3). The even grain size is about D-Fe3B=34 nm and D-Nd2Fe14B=23 nm.
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    Intermediate temperature sintering of La-modified Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O-3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics
    Xiangping JIANG, Jun LIAO, Xiaoyong WEI, Guorong LI, Daren CHEN, Qingrui YIN
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 287-289. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (255KB)
    In order to realize the co-firing with Ag/Pd electrodes in multilayer devices, Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)(1-x-y) ZrxTiyO3(0.25 < x < 0.35, 0.25 < y < 0.35)piezoelectric ceramics thereafter designated PZN-PZT) modified by La2O3 has been prepared by conventional technique with sintering temperature from 1100 degreesC to 1140 degreesC. X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated that pure perovskite phase was obtained. Secondary electron image (SEI) showed that crystalline grains in ceramics were well grown. d(33) of manufactured sample was as high as 560 x 10(-12)C/N. k(p) was about 0.61 and tg delta about 30 x 10(-3). The existence of liquid phase examined by electron diffraction in PZN-PZT sample is beneficial to sintering of the ceramic.
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    Luminescent properties of tetrakis (1-(1-thenoy)3,3,3-trifluoracetate) europium N-hexadecyl pyridinium in modified Si-MCM-41
    Qinghong XU, Liansheng LI, Bin LI, Jihong YU, Ruren XU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17 (02): 290-292. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (139KB)
    EU(TTA)(4)C5H5NC16H33 (TTA:1-(2-Thenoy)-3,3,3-Trifluoracetate) is encapsulated in Si-MCM-41 modified with N-(3-Trimethoxysilethyl)ethylenediamine. The emission spectrum of the assembly shows only a D-5(0)-->F-7(2) transition. As compared with the rare earth complex itself, the lifetime of the assembly becomes longer and its stability under the UV radiation is much better.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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