Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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The journal has been awarded the excellent periodical in China, and its articles are covered by SCI, EI, CA, SA, JST, RJ, CSA, MA, EMA, AIA etc., PASCAL web. ISI web of Science,SCOPUS.

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      28 June 2005, Volume 21 Issue Supl.1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Research Articles
    Size-dependent Interface Energies
    Qing JIANG, Haiming LU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 0-8. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (280KB)
    A series of simple models for different bulk and size-dependent interface energies are introduced. In particular a special emphasis on the size dependence of interface energy is carried out. The established models without free parameters are in agreement with the experimental or other theoretical results.
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    Amino Acid Modified Calixarenes as Crystal Growth Modifiers
    M.J.Bartlett, M.Mocerino, M.I.Ogden, A.Oliveira, G.M.Parkinson, J.K.Pettersen, M.M.Reyhani
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 1-5. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1111KB)
    Amino acid functionalized calixarenes, incorporating aspartic acid 1, alanine 2, and sarcosine 3, have been synthesized and studied as crystal growth modifiers. Calixarene 1 was found to alter the morphology of calcite significantly, elongating crystals in the c direction, and inducing chiral morphologies and growth features on the crystal surface. Additive 2, a secondary amide, was more efficacious than tertiary amide 3, suggesting a role for hydrogen bonding of the amide proton in crystal growth modification...
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    Effects of Polymer Concentration and Cationic Surfactant on the Morphology of Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibres
    Tong LIN, Hongxia WANG, Huimin WANG, Xungai WANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 9-12. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (526KB)
    PAN nanofibres were prepared via an electrospinning process. The effect of polymer concentration on the fibre morphology was studied. At a very dilute solution, no fibres were obtained in the electrospinning process. As the concentration increased, the fibre morphology evolved from a beads-on-string structure to a uniform fibre structure with increasing fibre diameters. However, when the same electrospinning process was conducted with the addition of a cationic surfactant, the formation of disconnected beads was prevented, and the number of beads-on-string structures reduced significantly. In addition, the presence of cationic surfactant reduced the average diameter of the electrospun PAN nanofibres.
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    Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Silicon Nitride Thin Films for MEMS Devices by Nanoindentation
    H.Huang, X.Z.Hu, Y.Liu, M.Bush, K.Winchester, C.Musca, J.Dell, L.Faraone
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 13-16. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1660KB)
    An experimental investigation of mechanical properties of thin films using nanoindentation was reported. Silicon nitride thin films with different thicknesses were deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on Si substrate. Nanoindentation was used to measure their elastic modulus and hardness. The results indicated that for a film/substrate bilayer system, the measured mechanical properties are significantly affected by the substrate properties. Empirical formulas were proposed for deconvoluting the film properties from the measured bilayer properties.
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    Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-ion Battery Applications
    G.X.Wang, Steve Bewlay, L.Yang, J.Z.Wang, Y.Chen, Jane Yao, H.K.Liu, S.X.Dou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 17-19. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (321KB)
    Nanocrystalline LiFePO4 and Si-C powders were prepared as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Near full capacity (170 mAh/g) was achieved at the C/8 rate at room temperature for LiFePO4 electrodes. Nanosize Si-C composite anode materials demonstrated a reversible lithium storage capacity of 1450 mAh/g with good cyclability when used as anodes in lithium-ion cells. Nanostructured electrode materials have an important role to play in developing a new generation of lithium-ion batteries that will offer a dramatic improvement in power delivery.
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    Template Approaches to Fabrication of Novel Porous Materials for Emerging Applications
    X.S.Zhao, Zuocheng ZHOU, Maria CHONG, Xiaoying BAO, Fabing SU, Wanping GUO, Qingfeng YAN, Lu LÜ
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 20-24. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (516KB)
    A brief summary of our recent research progress towards template synthesis of porous structures in response to rapidly growing emerging applications like photonics and energy storage is provided. We demonstrate how templating-synthesis strategies can be used to fabricate porous materials of different pore sizes, different compositions, and different morphologies. It should be noted that this is not a review article. Recent comprehensive and critical review papers in this field can be found in the literature [1~9].
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    Thermodynamics of Thermoelastic Martensitic Transformations in Functional Materials
    Yinong Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 25-28. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (5263KB)
    Thermoelastic martensitic transformations represent a unique collection of martensitic transformations that provide the working mechanisms for a range of functional materials. Such transformations present a unique thermodynamic system, whose basic principles apply to a wider spectrum of solid-state transformations, including processes such as magnetoelastic, electroelastic and optoelastic transformations. Owing to their unique ability to produce a mechanical work output, these transformation systems have great potential to serve as functional materials in a range of innovative designs as actuators and sensors. Understanding the thermodynamic laws governing these phenomena is of both fundamental significance for the understanding and characterization of the behaviour of these systems and practical importance as designing tools for the development of functional devices. This paper attempts to present a concise overview of the thermodynamic theories developed in the past few decades largely on typical examples of thermoelastic and magnetoelastic martensitic transformations in shape memory alloys.
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    Synthesis of Manganese Oxide onto Silica Particles Coated with Self-Assembled-Monolayers
    Peter J.Majewski, Tobias M.Fuchs, Shashi Prakash, Laure Tribalat
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 29-32. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2566KB)
    The synthesis of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with –CH3, -SH, -SO3H, -CH3CO2, -NH, -NHCl, and -CN functionality onto silica particles and their properties has been studied and characterised by infrared spectroscopy and measurement of the zeta-potential of the resulting powder, respectively. The infrared measurements of the samples clearly show the presence of CH2-goups and the various functionalised head groups of the SAMs in the samples indicating a successful deposition of the SAMs onto the silica particles. The measurements of the zeta-potential of the samples show clear variations of their zeta-potential depending on the type of SAM compared to the zeta-potential of the pure silica powder used in this study. Even positive zeta-potential could be measured for silica powder coated with –NH2, -NHCl, and CN-SAM. After immersing into manganese chloride solutions, the presence of manganese oxide on the SAMs coated silica particles could be observed. This phenomenon is believed to be caused by precipitation of manganese oxide particles out of the solution onto the SAMs.
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    Nanostructured Coatings and Thin Films
    Wei Gao, Zhengwei Li, Yedong He
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 33-36. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1028KB)
    Nanostructured materials often possess special properties that materials with identical compositions but ordinary grain size do not have. The surface nanocrystallisation, nanostructured alloy and composite coatings and electronic thin films were reported. Magnetron sputtering, thermal spray, electrophoretic deposition and pulse electro-spark deposition have been used to produce surface nanocrystalline structure or thin films. The composition and microstructure can be controlled by using different targets or electrodes, and adjusting processing parameters. Nanostructured coatings and thin films can provide special chemical, mechanical and opto-electronic properties. High temperature corrosion resistance is used as an example to show the effects of nanostructure. The study has been focused on the interrelations between processing parameters, microstructure and properties. Physical and mathematical models have been established to describe the effects of nanocrystalline structure on the properties.
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    Formation and Evolution Mechanisms of Nano-clusters in a Large-scale Liquid Metal System during Solidification Processes
    Rangsu LIU, Jiyong LI, K.J.Dong, R.P.Zou, A.B.Yu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 37-41. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (944KB)
    A molecular dynamics simulation of rapid cooling process has been performed for a large-scale system consisting of 400,000 Al atoms with a supercomputer. To study the formation and evolution mechanisms of nano-clusters in solidification, the so-called cluster-type index method has been applied to describe the structural configurations of the basic small clusters and combined larger clusters obtained from the simulation. The results show that relatively large nano-clusters are formed from small and medium sized clusters through continuous mutual competitions of annexation and evolution of small clusters in a seesaw manner, giving a structure different from the multi-shell structure where an atom acts as the center of a cluster and the surrounding atoms are arranged according to a certain rule.
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    Nanostructured FePt Thin Films with High Ceorcivity
    Z.L.Zhao, J.Ding, J.B.Yi, B.H.Liu, J.S.Chen, J.P.Wang, Y.N.Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 43-46. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (694KB)
    The influence of the presence of Ag-layers on the formation of the ordered fct-L10 phase and the consequence of magnetic properties have been studied, when thin FePt films were deposited on glass and MgO substrates. It has been found that the presence of Ag layer (particularly Ag top-layer) can promote the formation of the high-coercivity fct-L10 phase. Epitaxial growth of the FePt (001) film was observed and the crystalline size is around 10 nm with a deposition temperature of 400$^{\circ}$C, when FePt thin film was deposited on MgO (100) single crystal substrate. With ultrathin Ag intermediate layers deposited between FePt layers, the surface morphology changed from interconnection network to isolated-island character. The perpendicular coercivity of the FePt film dramatically increased from 6.5 to 32.5 kOe.
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    Size Effect on Fracture of MEMS Materials
    Xiaozhi HU, Kai DUAN
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 47-50. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (936KB)
    Weibull strength distributions of single crystal silicon and polysilicon measured from micro-specimens are analyzed by a simple flaw statistics model. The model can be used to determine important material properties such as the nano-/micro-flaw density and flaw size distribution from the common Weibull parameters. The fracture toughness of single crystal Si should be used for both single crystal Si and polysilicon MEMS structures as it controls fracture initiated from the nano-/micro-flaws. The fracture toughness measured from micro-specimens of polysilicon needs to be treated with caution as it may be subjected to size effect as the microcrack length is comparable to the grain size. The comparison of AFM measurements and predictions of the flaw density based on various toughness results has been used to confirm the size effect.
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    Crystallization Behavior of (Cu60Zr30Ti10)99Sn1 Bulk Metallic Glass
    Hao WANG, Xiaoping SONG, Xiangdong YAO, Haifeng ZHANG, Zhuangqi HU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 51-53. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (504KB)
    The crystallization behavior and crystallization kinetics of (Cu60Zr30Ti10)99Sn1 bulk metallic glass was studied by X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that a two-stage crystallization took place during continuous heating of the bulk metallic glass. Both the glass transition temperature Tg and the crystallization peak temperatures Tp displayed a strong dependence on the heating rate. The activation energy was determined by the Kissinger analysis method. In the first-stage of the crystallization, the transformation of the bulk metallic glass to the phase one occurred with an activation energy of 386 kJ/mol; in the second-stage, the formation of the phase two took place at an activation energy of 381 kJ/mol.
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    Preparation and Characterization of Ba(Ti0.8Zr0.2)O3 Nanopowder
    Huarui XU, Huaiying ZHOU, Aibing YU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 54-56. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (245KB)
    The synthesis of nanosized, homogeneous Ba(Ti0.8Zr0.2)O3 (BTZ) powders from cheap raw materials BaCl2, TiCl4, and ZrOCl2 can be achieved by a simple precipitation process operated at a temperature less than 100℃. Characterization via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis confirms that the as-prepared powder is ~100 nm with a narrow size distribution. It is also well dispersed because the particle size from SEM observation is almost the same as from BET calculation. Characterization via powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the phase of the as-precipitated powder is not the simple mixture of BaTiO3 and BaZrO3 phases but is clearly crystallized as monophasic Ba(Ti0.8Zr0.2)O3 (BTZ) and no other phases have been detected, although the initial concentration ratio of [BaCl2]/[TiCl4+ZrOCl2] varies from 1.0 to 2.0. The dielectric behavior of as-prepared BTZ powder is then investigated and it is found that the change in the dielectric constant during the tested temperature does not exceed 30% and with very low dissipation factor. So, the as-prepared BTZ powder is suitable for MLCC.
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    The CAST CRC: a Light Metals Partnership between Industry, Government and R&D Providers
    David StJohn
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 61-64. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (219KB)
    CAST was first established in 1993 as a joint venture between industry, research and government partners to carry out research and development in the area of light metals. Over the ten years since its formation CAST has developed a world class research program and, in addition to the significant application of outcomes by our industry partners, much of this research has reached the stage of commercialisation. In addition, CAST has developed a significant education and training program, a best practice technology transfer program for SMEs, consulting and design activities and established an Alliance with Australian Magnesium Corporation (now Advanced Magnesium Technologies) as a provider of their research and development needs. This has been achieved by cooperation between all our partners who represent most of the light metals research groups and a significant proportion of light metals industries in Australia. The close involvement of the industry partners in all aspects of the operation of CAST has ensured we have a program of activities focused on delivering benefits to Australia$'$s light metals industry. This paper presents an overview of the research and other activities undertaken by CAST. More detail on some key projects are presented in other papers at this conference.
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    Semisolid Structure Formation and Semisolid Casting
    Hao WANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 65-71. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (810KB)
    Semisolid metal forming has now been accepted as a viable technology for production of components with complex shape and high integrity. The advantages of semisolid metal forming can only be achieved when the feedstock material has a non-dendritic semisolid structure. A controlled nucleation method has been developed to produce such structures for semisolid forming. By controlling grain nucleation and growth, fine-grained and non-dendritic microstructures that are suitable for semisolid casting can be generated. The method was applied to hypoeutectic and hypereutectic Al-Si casting alloys, Al wrought alloys and a Mg alloy. Parameters such as pouring temperature, cooling rate and grain refiner addition were controlled to achieve copious nucleation, nuclei survival and dendritic growth suppression during solidification. The influences of the controlling parameters on the formation of semisolid structure were different for each of these alloy groups. The as-cast structures were then partially remelted and isothermally held. Semisolid structures were developed and followed by semisolid casting into a stepped die.
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    Effects of Phosphorus on Microstructure and Creep Property of IN718 Superalloy
    Zhuangqi HU, Hongwei SONG, Shouren GUO, Wenru SUN, Dezhong LU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 73-76. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (406KB)
    IN718 Ni-Fe-base alloy was prepared to study the effects of phosphorus. The results show that phosphorus improves morphology of grain boundary precipitates. Phosphorus has a remarkable beneficial effect on stress-rupture life and creep resistance. Increasing phosphorus in IN718 to 0.02\% causes an increase of the apparent creep activation energy from 678.6 kJ/mol to 746.1 kJ/mol. It has been proposed that the significant beneficial effect of phosphorus mainly arises from the inhibition of diffusion along grain boundary.
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    Application of Edge-to-edge Matching Model to Grain Refinement in Mg-Al Based Alloys
    M.-X.Zhang, P.M.Kelly, M.Qian, J.A.Taylor
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 77-80. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (182KB)
    An edge-to-edge matching model has been used to analyze the crystallographic features between Mg matrix and three commonly accepted heterogeneous nucleants for Mg grains, Al4C3, Al2CO and Al8(Mn, Fe)5. The model has predicted that Al2CO is the most effective nucleant of the three compounds assessed for Mg grains and that Al4C3 can be a nucleant for Mg grains, but it is not as effective as Al2CO. This prediction is consistent with most recent experimental results. The Al8(Mn, Fe)5 intermetallic compound is predicted to have the lowest efficiency as a grain refiner. The model may be used to provide theoretical guidance for selection of new and potent grain refiners for Mg-Al based alloys.
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    Service Performance of Engineering Materials
    Andrej Atrens
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 81-85. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (187KB)
    Corrosion research by Atrens and co-workers has made significant contributions to the understanding of the service performance of engineering materials. This includes: (1) elucidated corrosion mechanisms of Mg alloys, stainless steels and Cu alloys, (2) developed an improved understanding of passivity in stainless steels and binary alloys such as Fe-Cr, Ni-Cr, Co-Cr, Fe-Ti, and Fe-Si, (3) developed an improved understanding of the melt spinning of Cu alloys, and (4) elucidated mechanisms of environment assisted fracture (EAF) of steels and Zr alloys. This paper summarises contributions in the following: (1) intergranular stress corrosion cracking of pipeline steels, (2) atmospheric corrosion and patination of Cu, (3) corrosion of Mg alloys, and (4) transgranular stress corrosion cracking of rock bolts.
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    Bulk Metallic Glass Composites
    Hao WANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 86-90. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (394KB)
    Metallic glasses have attracted considerable attention due to their unique properties. The recent discovery of new glass-forming compositions makes it possible to produce metallic glasses in bulk shapes. Bulk metallic glasses offer an opportunity to revolutionize the field of structural materials with combinations of strength, elastic limit, toughness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The main current technical barrier is their limited ductility. Forming a composite containing ductile crystal phase in a bulk metallic glass matrix has been proven as an effective approach to increase their ductility. Three types of bulk metallic glass composites are discussed: extrinsic composites, in-situ composites and nanocrystalline composites. The paper also lists the key issues in the development of bulk metallic glass composites.
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    Analysis of Oxidation and Surface Characteristics in Hot Strip Rolling
    Zhengyi JIANG, Weihua SUN, Jianning TANG, Dongbin WEI, Kiet A.TIEU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 91-94. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (772KB)
    Deformation characteristics of the oxide scale in hot strip mill have not been quantified before and the principle of the effect of oxide scale deformation in the roll bite on strip surface roughness has not yet been revealed. In this paper, analysis of the thin secondary oxide scale formed in hot metal rolling and its surface roughness micro deformation is carried out by experiments and finite element analysis. Simulation results are compared with the measured values, which show that they are in close agreement. Surface roughness transfer during hot metal rolling is also discussed.
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    Ti Based Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Powder Metallurgy Routes
    Z.G.Liu, B.Gabbitas, D.L.Zhang, J.Liang, W.Gao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 95-97. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (294KB)
    The production and microstructural characterization of two types of ceramic particulate reinforced Ti matrix composites (TMCs): Ti-6Al-4V/10~vol. pct TiB and Ti(Al,O)/58 vol. pct Al2O3 were studied. The Ti-6Al-4V/10 vol. pct TiB composite with refined microstructure has been produced using a combination of high energy mechanical milling and hot isostatic pressing. The Ti(Al,O)/58 vol. pct Al2O3 in-situ composite powder has been produced using a novel powder processing process which involves high energy mechanical milling of a mixture of Al and TiO2 powders to produce an Al/TiO2 composite powder followed by thermal treatment of the composite powder. The Ti(Al,O)/58 vol. pct Al2O3 composite powder has been used to produce coatings. Selected mechanical properties of the Ti-6Al-4V/10 vol. pct TiB composite and the high temperature oxidation resistance have also been evaluated.
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    Cast Gamma TiAl with Self Oriented Lamellar Microstructure
    J.Zhang, K.Xia
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 99-100. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (494KB)
    Enhancing mechanical properties and improving reliability of TiAl alloys by utilizing the mechanical anisotropy of the cast lamellar structure were reported. A self-oriented lamellar (SOL) microstructure was successfully produced in shaped components. After modification by hot isostatic pressing, such a microstructure exhibited improved mechanical properties. The TiAl rotor blades with SOL in a turbocharger passed rotation rig tests and showed enhanced engine performance.
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    Structure Property Relationships in Polymer Nanocomposite
    Rowan W.Truss
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 101-103. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (326KB)
    The addition of small quantities (~5 wt pct) layered silicates into polymer materials has the potential to greatly increase the modulus without adversely affecting the toughness or processability of the composite. The effect of microstructural features in the polymer nanocomposite and their possible effects on the mechanical properties with particular reference to linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)/montmorillonite nanocomposites was discussed.
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    Liquid Crystallinity and Thermal Behaviors of Thermotropic Copolyester/Fully Exfoliated Layered Silicate Nanocomposites
    Xingping ZHOU, Zhaoying GUO, Xiaolin XIE, Yiuwing MAI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 104-106. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (350KB)
    The thermotropic copolyester/fully exfoliated layered silicate nanocomposites (LCP/MMT) were synthesized by in-situ acetylation reaction. The liquid crystallinity and thermal behaviors of the LCP/MMT nanocomposites were investigated. The results showed that LCP/MMT nanocomposites exhibit nematic liquid crystalline behavior, and the incorporation of the exfoliated MMT layers throughout the LCP matrix results in very fine but imperfect schlieren texture, and the disinclination becomes blurred. The incorporation of the exfoliated MMT layers leads to different effects on the glass transition, melting and crystallization of the PBT-rich and PHB-rich domains in LCP macromolecules due to their different chain flexibility and structure.
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    Electrophoretic Deposition of Ceramic Powders
    Shaohua ZHANG, C.C.Sorrel, F.Y.Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 107-110. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (164KB)
    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is receiving great interests because of its advantages of versatility, easy scaling-up, low cost and variety of shapes. This review covers the theory, application, suspension preparation, and process parameter selection of electrophoretic deposition. Besides traditional DLVA theory, new theories and model have been put forward to explain the mechanism of EPD. Its applications include SOFC, fibre reinforced and graded ceramic composites, nanostructured materials and a variety of advanced films and coating. An effective suspension requires appropriate selection of solvent, binder, dispersant and other ionic additives. A good conbination of process parameters will lead to the good formation of electrophoretic deposition.
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    TEM Characterization of Nanostructure and Chemistry of Semiconductor Quantum Structures
    Jin ZOU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 111-113. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (159KB)
    The power of advanced transmission electron microscopy in determining the nanostructures and chemistry of nanosized materials on the applications in semiconductor quantum structures was demonstrated.
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    Interfacial Interactions and Structure of Organic-Inorganic Nanohybrids
    Q.H.Zeng, A.B.Yu, G.Q.Lu, R.K.St, ish
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 114-118. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2535KB)
    Understanding the interfacial interactions and structure is important to better design and application of organic-inorganic nanohybrids. This paper presents our recent molecular dynamic studies on organoclays and polymer nanocomposites, including the layering behavior of organoclays, structural and dynamic properties of dioctadecyldimethyl ammoniums in organoclays, and interfacial interactions and structure of polyurethane nanocomposites. The results demonstrate that the layering behaviors of organoclays are closely related to the chain length of quaternary alkyl ammoniums and cation exchangeable capacity of clays. In addition to typical layered structures such as monolayer, bilayer and pseudo-trilayer, a pseudo-quadrilayer structure was also observed in organoclays modified with dioctadecyldimethyl ammoniums (DODDMA). In such a structure, alkyl chains do not lie flat within a single layer but interlace, and also jump to the next layer or even the next nearest layer. Moreover, the diffusion constants of nitrogen and methylene atoms increase with the temperature and methelene towards the tail groups. For polyurethane nanocomposite, the van der Waals interaction between apolar alkyl chains and soft segments of polyurethane predominates the interactions between organoclay and polyurethane. Different from most bulk polyurethane systems, there is no distinct phase-separated structure for the polyurethane.
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    Characterization and Electrode Properties of Mg-Ni-RE Compounds for Hydrogen Storage
    Zhongmin WANG, Huaiying ZHOU, R.P.ZOU, Zhengfei GU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2005, 21 (Supl.1): 119-122. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (457KB)
    Mg1.95RE0.05Ni (RE=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Y), REMgNi4 (RE=La, Ce, Pr, Nd) and REMg2Ni9(RE=Pr, Nd) compounds were prepared by ball-milling of mixed powder of Mg, Ni, RENi (or RE) followed by sintering in pure Ar. XRD analysis showed that Mg1.95RE0.05Ni compounds are all single-phase with a crystal structure same as Mg2Ni. The lattice constants (a, c, c/a) were calculated. It was suggested that rare earth substitution leads to a slight increase in the values of a and c compared with Mg2Ni. Electrode properties of these compounds were evaluated by means of a simulated battery test. The effectiveness in improving the discharge capacity resulted from the addition of RE increased in the following order: Mg1.95Pr0.05Ni>Mg1.95Nd0.05Ni>Mg1.95Ce0.05Ni>Mg1.95La0.05Ni>Mg1.95Y0.05Ni. For REMgNi4 compounds, a slight increase in the discharge capacity was observed in the following order: NdMgNi4>PrMgNi4>La- MgNi4>CeMgNi4. The maximum discharge capacity of NdMgNi4 compound was about 200 mAh/g. The discharge capacities of both NdMg2Ni9 and PrMg2Ni9 compounds were less than 100 mAh/g.
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