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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      10 March 2016, Volume 32 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Highly Stable Silicn-Carbn-Nitrgen Cmpsite Andes frm Silsesquiazane fr Rechargeable Lithium-In Battery
    Yng Sek Kim, Yng L. J, Yung-Je Kwark
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (3): 195-199.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.12.019
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    Herein, we develped nvel silicn-carbn-nitrgen (SiCN) cmpsites synthesized by pyrlyzing silsesquiazane plymer as an ande material fr rechargeable lithium-in batteries. Amng variable pyrlysis temperatures f 700 °C, 1000 °C and 1300 °C, the SiCN cmpsites prepared at 1000 °C shwed the highest capacity with utstanding battery cycle life by cyclic vltammetry and electrchemical impedance spectrscpy. Such gd battery and electrchemical perfrmances shuld be attributed t a prper rati f carbn and nitrgen r xygen in the SiCN cmpsites. Furthermre, ur SiCN electrde pssessed better lithium in cnductivity than pure silicn nanparticles. This wrk demnstrates that plymer-derived cmpsites are amng the prmising strategies t achieve highly stable silicn andes fr rechargeable batteries.
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    Polyethylene Oxide-Coated Electrospun Polyimide Fibrous Seperator for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery
    Xingxing Liang, Ying Yang, Xin Jin, Jie Cheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (3): 200-206.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.11.006
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    A polyethylene oxide (PEO)-coated polyimide (PI) membrane was prepared by electrospinning method followed by a dip-coating and drying process for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIB). Semicrystal PEO was covered on the surface of the fibers and partially enmeshed in PI matrix, which formed unique porous structures. The pores with an average size of 4.1 µm and a porosity of 90% served as ion transport channels. Compared with the cell with Celgard 2400 membrane, the half-cell using PEO-coated PI membrane as a separator exhibits excellent electrochemical performance both at room temperature and at low temperature. The electrolyte uptaking rate of PEO-coated PI membrane was 170% and the ionic conductivity was 3.83 × 10-3 S cm-1. PEO-coated PI membrane possessed 5.3 V electrochemical window. The electrode-electrolyte interfacial resistance was 62.4 Ω. The capacity retention ratios with PEO-coated PI membrane were 86.4% at 5 C and 73.5% at 10 C at 25 °C and 75% at 5 C at 0 °C. Furthermore, the cell using the separator demonstrates excellent capacity retention over cycling. These advanced characteristics would boost the application of the PEO-coated PI membrane for high-power lithium ion battery.
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    Chemical Bath Co-deposited ZnS Film Prepared from Different Zinc Salts: ZnSO4-Zn(CH3COO)2, Zn(NO3)2-Zn(CH3COO)2, or ZnSO4-Zn(NO3)2
    Tingzhi Liu, Yangyang Li, Huan Ke, Yuhai Qian, Shuwang Duo, Yanli Hong, Xinyuan Sun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (3): 207-217.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.08.002
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    ZnSO4-Zn(CH3COO)2, Zn(NO3)2-Zn(CH3COO)2, ZnSO4-Zn(NO3)2, ZnSO4, Zn(NO3)2 or Zn(CH3COO)2 have been used as zinc sources to prepare ZnS thin films by chemical bath deposition and co-deposition methods. Zn(NO3)2 or/and Zn(CH3COO)2 is/are favorable for cluster by cluster deposition process while ZnSO4 favors ion by ion deposition process regardless of concentration ratios of ZnSO4. However, Zn(NO3)2 affects the nucleation density of ZnS nuclei on the substrate. ZnS thin films deposited from ZnSO4-Zn(CH3COO)2 are not only more homogeneous and compact, but also have higher growth rate and adhesion on to the glass substrate. The cubic ZnS films are obtained after only single deposition. The average transmission of films from S6, S7, S8, S9 and S1 for 2 and 2.5 h is greater than 85% in visible region. Compared with the film from S6 (112 nm), the film from S7 is not only thicker (125 nm), but also more transparent. The band gaps of the films deposited from S6, S7, S8, S9 and S1 for 2 and 2.5 h range from 3.88 to 3.98 eV. The effects of anions from different zinc salts are discussed in detail.
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    Hydrogen Storage Kinetics of Nanocrystalline and Amorphous LaMg12-Type Alloy-Ni Composites Synthesized by Mechanical Milling
    Yanghuan Zhang, Baowei Li, Huiping Ren, Tai Yang, Shihai Guo, Yan Qi, Dongliang Zhao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (3): 218-225.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.12.005
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    The nanocrystalline and amorphous LaMg11Ni + x wt% Ni (x = 100, 200) composites were synthesized by the mechanical milling, and their gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage kinetics performance were systematically investigated. The results indicate that the as-milled composites exhibit excellent hydrogen storage kinetic performances, and increasing Ni content significantly facilitates the improvement of the hydrogen storage kinetics properties of the composites. The gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage kinetics of the composites reaches a maximum value with the variation of milling time. Increasing Ni content and milling time both make the hydrogen desorption activation energy lower, which are responsible for the enhancement in the hydrogen storage kinetics properties of the composites. The diffusion coefficient of hydrogen atom and activation enthalpy of charge transfer on the surface of the as-milled composites were also calculated, which are considered to be the dominated factors for the electrochemical high rate discharge ability.
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    Improvement of the Compressive Strength of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composites via Microwave Curing
    Xuehong Xu, Xiaoqun Wang, Qun Cai, Xu Wang, Ran Wei, Shanyi Du
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (3): 226-232.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.10.006
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    Microwave processing was used to cure the carbon fiber/epoxy composites and designed for improving the compressive strength of the materials. By controlling the power of microwave heating, vacuum bagged laminates were fabricated under one atmosphere pressure without arcing. The physical and mechanical properties of composites produced through vacuum bagging using microwave and thermal curing were compared and the multistep (2-step or 3-step) microwave curing process for improved compressive properties was established. The results indicated that microwave cured samples had somewhat differentiated molecular structure and showed slightly higher glass transition temperature. The 2-step process was found to be more conducive to the enhancement of the compressive strength than the 3-step process. A 39% cure cycle time reduction and a 22% compressive strength increment were achieved for the composites manufactured with microwave radiation. The improvement in specific compressive strength was attributed to better interfacial bonding between resin matrix and the fibers, which was also demonstrated via scanning electron microscopy analysis.
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    Fabrication and Evaluation of a Bioactive Sr-Ca-P Contained Micro-Arc Oxidation Coating on Magnesium Strontium Alloy for Bone Repair Application
    Junjie Han, Peng Wan, Yu Sun, Zongyuan Liu, Xinmin Fan, Lili Tan, Ke Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (3): 233-244.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.11.012
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    Considering the compatibility between degradation and bioactivity of magnesium-based implants for bone repair, micro-arc oxidation is used to modify the magnesium alloy surface in aqueous electrolytes, allowing strontium, calcium, and phosphorus to be incorporated into the coating. The thickness, composition, morphology and phase of this Sr-Ca-P containing coating are characterized by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro and in vivo degradation of the coating is evaluated by immersion test, electrochemical test and implantation test. Moreover, the cytocompatibility is tested with osteoblast cell according to ISO 10993. The results show that Sr, Ca and P elements are incorporated into the oxide coating, and a refined structure with tiny discharging micro-pores is observed on the surface of the coating. The Sr-Ca-P coating possesses a better corrosion resistance in vitro and retards the degradation in vivo. Such coating is expected to have significant medical applications on orthopedic implants and bone repair materials.
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    Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a CoFeNi2V0.5Nb0.75 Eutectic High Entropy Alloy in As-cast and Heat-treated Conditions
    Li Jiang, Yiping Lu, Wei Wu, Zhiqiang Cao, Tingju Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (3): 245-250.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.08.006
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    The eutectic CoFeNi2V0.5Nb0.75 high entropy alloys (HEAs) were heated at 500, 600, 700, 800 and 1000 °C, respectively for 6 h and subsequently quenched in the water to investigate their thermal stability and phase transformation at high temperature. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, compressive and hardness tests. It was found that the as-cast CoFeNi2V0.5Nb0.75 HEAs showed a eutectic microstructure with alternating fcc solid solution phase and Fe2Nb-type Laves phase. The NbNi4-type intermetallic phase appeared when the heat-treated temperature was higher than 600 °C. With increasing quenching temperature, the volume fraction of the NbNi4-type intermetallic phase increased while that of the eutectic regions decreased. The sample quenched at 800 °C showed the most excellent comprehensive mechanical properties; its fracture strength, yield strength and plastic strain were as high as 2586.76 MPa, 2075.18 MPa and 16.73%, respectively. Moreover, the eutectic CoFeNi2V0.5Nb0.75 HEAs exhibited apparent age hardening, especially quenched at 700 °C, the hardness reached up to the maximum value of HV 727.52.
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    Comparative Study on Optical Properties and Scratch Resistance of Nanocomposite Coatings Incorporated with Flame Spray Pyrolyzed Silica Modified via in-situ Route and ex-situ Route
    Yun Wang, Ling Zhang, Yanjie Hu, Chunzhong Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (3): 251-258.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.11.008
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    A new type of transparent scratch resistant coatings including in-situ modified SiO2 (g-SiO2) in flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) process was prepared. The maximum content of g-SiO2 in the coating was 15 wt%, which is higher than that of SiO2 modified by traditional wet chemical route (l-SiO2, only 10 wt%). The results of transmission electron microscopy have demonstrated that in-situ surface modified g-SiO2 particles dispersed well with smaller agglomerates in the final coating, which was much better than the particles modified via wet chemical route. Visible light transmittance and haze tests were introduced to characterize the optical quality of the films. All coatings were highly transparent with the visible light transmittance of above 80%, especially for coatings containing g-SiO2, which exhibited slightly higher visible light transmittance than l-SiO2 embedded one. The haze value of coatings incorporated with 15 wt% g-SiO2 was 1.85%, even lower than the coating with 5 wt% l-SiO2 (haze value of 2.09%), indicating much better clarity of g-SiO2. The excellent optical property of g-SiO2 filled coatings was attributed to the good dispersion and distribution of particles. Nano-indention and nano-scratch tests were conducted to investigate the scratch resistance of coatings on nano-scale. The surface hardness of the coatings rose by 18% and 14%, and the average friction coefficient decreased by 15% and 11%, respectively, compared to the neat coat due to the addition of 10 wt% g-SiO2 and l-SiO2. The pencil hardness of the coating with 15 wt% g-SiO2 increased from 2B for the neat coating to 2H. However, the pencil hardness of coating with 10 wt% l-SiO2 was only H. The results showed that the g-SiO2 embedded coatings exhibited higher scratch resistance and better optical properties.
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    Detailed Evolution Mechanism of Interfacial Void Morphology in Diffusion Bonding
    Chao Zhang, Hong Li, Miaoquan Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (3): 259-264.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.12.002
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    Similar diffusion bonding of 1Cr11Ni2W2MoV stainless steel was conducted at different bonding temperatures. The interface characteristics and mechanical properties of joints were examined, and the evolution of interfacial void morphology was analyzed in detail. The results showed that there were four typical interfacial void shapes generating sequentially: the large scraggly voids, penny-shaped voids, ellipse voids and rounded voids. The variation of interfacial void shape was dominated by surface diffusion, while the reduction of void volume was ascribed to the combined effects of plastic flow of materials around voids, interface diffusion and volume diffusion. Owing to the elimination of void from the bonding interface, the sound joint obtained could exhibit nearly full interfacial contact, and present excellent mechanical properties, in which the microhardness and shear strength of joint matched those of base material.
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    M5B3 Boride at the Grain Boundary of a Nickel-based Superalloy
    Beining Du, Zhiwu Shi, Jinxia Yang, Zhaokuang Chu, Chuanyong Cui, Xiaofeng Sun, Liyuan Sheng, Yufeng Zheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (3): 265-270.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.11.010
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    The grain boundary microstructures of a heat-treated Ni-based cast superalloy IN792 were investigated. The results show that M5B3 boride precipitates at the grain boundary. A special orientation relationship between M5B3 phase and the matrix at one side of the grain boundary is found. At the same time, two M5B3 borides with different orientations could co-exist in a single M5B3 particle as an intergrowth besides existing alone, thus forming orientation relationship between the two M5B3 phases and matrix. This phenomenon could be attributed to the special orientation relationship between M5B3 phase and the matrix.
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    Influence of Ru on Solidification Behavior, Microstructure and Hardness of Re-free Ni-based Equiaxed Superalloys with High Cr Content
    Yingshuang Guan, Enze Liu, Xiurong Guan, Zhi Zheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (3): 271-281.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.11.009
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    The effect of Ru addition on solidification behavior, microstructure and hardness of Re-free Ni-based equiaxed superalloys with high Cr content has been investigated. With the increase of Ru, the solidus temperature of the alloys and the γ′ solvus temperature decreased, respectively. However, the liquidus temperatures of the alloys had no obvious change. The microstructure of the as-cast alloys was mainly composed of γ, γ′, γ/γ′ eutectic and MC carbides. The γ/γ′ eutectic was completely dissolved after the heat treatment. The morphology of γ′ was more cuboidal in heat-treated alloys with increasing Ru. Furthermore, the volume fraction of γ′ in the as-cast and heat-treated alloys diminished upon the increase of Ru. It was noted that Ru addition changed the segregation behaviors of Cr and Mo in the alloys from positive segregation element to negative segregation element and promotes the segregation degree of W. As the Ru content increased, the magnitude of segregation of the positive segregation elements Ta and Ti increased accordingly. Meanwhile, the magnitude of Al segregation decreased and Ru tended to segregate in the dendrite core. In addition, the hardness of the alloys improved and their porosity reduced with increasing amount of Ru.
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    Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Dissimilar Weld-Joints between Duplex Stainless Steel 2205 and Austenitic Stainless Steel 316L
    Aboulfazl Moteshakker, Iman Danaee
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (3): 282-290.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.11.021
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    The microstructure and corrosion resistance of dissimilar weld-joints between stainless steel SAF 2205 and stainless steel AISI 316L were investigated. Welding was accomplished by different types of welding wires AWS ER 347, AWS ER 316L and AWS ER 309L. To verify soundness of welded samples, nondestructive tests were performed. Metallographic samples were prepared from cross-section areas of weld-joints to investigate microstructure of different regions of weld-joints by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion resistance of weld-joints was evaluated in NaCl solution by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. In the weld metal AWS ER 347, the brittle sigma phase was created, resulting in the decrease of weld-joint corrosion resistance. According to the results of metallurgical investigations and corrosion tests, welding wire AWS ER 309L was suitable for welding duplex stainless steel (SAF 2205) to austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L) by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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