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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      31 March 2012, Volume 28 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    A Review on the Regulation of Magnetic Transitions and the Related Magnetocaloric Properties in Ni-Mn-Co-Sn Alloys
    Zhenchen Zhong, Shengcan Ma, Dunhui Wang, Youwei Du
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 193-199. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In Ni-Mn-X (X=In, Sn, Sb) ferromagnetic shape memory alloys, a ferromagnetic transition from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic austenite and a martensitic transformation from ferromagnetic austenite to weak magnetic martensite occur in some particular composition ranges, in which abundant physical properties have been observed by the abrupt change of magnetization and resistivity around their transition temperatures in  these alloys. Therefore, tuning the martensitic transformation temperature (TM) and enlarging the workingtemperature interval for Ni-Mn-X (X=In, Sn, Sb) alloys, are of great importance. In the present paper, we will focus on the effect of external factors, including pre-deformation, annealing, and high pressure annealing, on the magnetic transitions and the related magnetocaloric properties in Ni-Mn-Co-Sn ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Our approaches and the main results in this particular field will be reviewed.
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    Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    Acetone Sensors Based on La3+ Doped ZnO Nano-rods Prepared by Solvothermal Method
    Xiangfeng Chu, Xiaohua Zhu, Yongping Dong, Xiutao Ge, Shouquan Zhang, Wenqi Sun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 200-204. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    La3+ doped ZnO nano-rods with different doping concentration were prepared via solvothermal method. The doped ZnO nano-rods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The effect of La3+ doping on the gas-sensing properties was investigated. The results revealed that the sensor based on 6 mol% La3+ doped ZnO nano-rods exhibited high response to dilute acetone, and the responses to 0.01×10-6 acetone reached 2.4 when operating at 425 °C. The response time and the recovery time for 0.01×10-6 acetone were only 16 and 3 s, respectively.
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    Cutting Performance of WC-Co Alloys Modified by Nano-Additives
    You Wang, Zhaoyi Pan, Chengbiao Wang, Xiaoguang Sun, Zhijian Peng, Baolin Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 205-213. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this paper, the microstructure of WC-Co alloys with and without nano-additives was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hardness and fracture toughness was tested by using a Vickers hardness tester and a universal testing machine. The cutting test was carried out at di®erent feed velocities (250 r/min and 320 r/min), and the contact pairs are cutting tools and 45# steel bars. Results showed that the hardness and fracture toughness of WC-Co cemented carbides with nano-additives are higher than that of WC-Co cemented carbides without nano-additives, and they are increased 10.21% and 19.69%, respectively. The flank worn width and crater width of cutting tools decrease
    greatly with the addition of nano-additives. For the nano-modified specimen with WC grain size of 7μm, both the flank worn width and crater width are the minimum after the cutting process. And there are little built-up layers and some pile-up regions on the flank face leading to high cutting performance for the  nano-modified cemented carbides. There are some melted regions on the flank face of cutting tools without nano-additives, and the WC grains on the cross section of alloys without nano-additives show severe fragmentation. The wear type of WC-Co is flank wear, and the wear mechanism is abrasive, adhesion and oxidation wear.
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    High Temperature Structural Materials
    Modes of Grain Selection in Spiral Selector during Directional Solidification of Nickel-base Superalloys
    Xiangbin Meng, Qi Lu, Jinguo Li, Tao Jin, Xiaofeng Sun, Jun Zhang, Zhongqiang Chen, Yanhui Wang, Zhuangqi Hu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 214-220. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The modes of grain selection in spiral selector were investigated by both a ProCAST simulation and experimental confirmation. The results show that the efficiency of grain selection in starter block is associated with the geometry shape. At the early stage of grain selection, the optimization of grain orientation is dominated by competitive grain growth, but the optimization of grain orientation in starter block is gradually dominated by geometry shape at the later stage of grain selection. Besides, the spiral part could also optimize the orientation of the selected single crystal when the initial angle is large enough, and the single crystal selection in spiral parts with different pitch lengths and initial angles is dominated by different modes. The simulation results agree well with experimental ones.
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    Coarsening Kinetics of γ′ Precipitates in Dendritic Regions of a Ni3Al Base Alloy
    H.B. Motejadded, M. Soltanieh, S. Rastegari
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 221-228. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Coarsening behavior of γ′ precipitates in the dendritic regions of a Ni3Al base alloy containing chromium, molybdenum, zirconium and boron was investigated. Annealing treatment was performed up to 50 h at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C. The alloy was produced by vacuum-arc remelting technique. Results show that coarsening of the γ′ precipitates in this complex alloy containing high volume fractions of γ′ phase follows Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theory. Coarsening activation energy of the γ′ precipitates was evaluated to be about 253.5 kJ?mol-1 which shows that the growth phenomenon is controlled by volume diffusion of aluminum. With an innovative approach, diffusion coefficient of the solute element(s) and the interfacial energy between γ′ precipitates and γ (matrix) were estimated at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C. Accordingly, the interfacial energies at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C are 4.49±1.48, 2.08±0.69 and 0.98±0.32 mJ?m-2, respectively. Also the diffusivities of solute element(s) at these temperatures are 3.41±1.08, 30±9.5 and 145.15±45.85 (10-15 m2?s-1), respectively.
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    Orientation Dependence of Stress Rupture Properties of a Ni-based Single Crystal Superalloy at 760 oC
    Shaohua Zhang, Dong Wang, Jian Zhang, Langhong Lou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 229-233. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The orientation dependence of creep rupture lives of a single crystal superalloy at 760 oC/760 MPa was investigated. The orientations of the specimens tested were about 30o away from [001]. The results showed that specimens with orientations on the [001]-[011] boundary had the longest rupture life. The deformation of these specimen were controlled by a/2<110> slip and a few stacking faults with two orientations were observed. On the other hand, specimens with orientations near the [001]-[011] boundary or on the [001]- [¹111] boundary showed short rupture lives, and stacking faults with single orientation were observed in these specimens. The rupture properties and the deformation mechanisms were discussed based on the dislocation
    pattern and the calculated Schmid factors for different specimens..
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    Preparation of SiC Fiber Reinforced Nickel Matrix Composite
    Lu Zhang, Nanlin Shi, Jun Gong, Chao Sun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 234-240. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A method of preparing continuous (Al+Al2O3)-coated SiC fiber reinforced nickel matrix composite was presented, in which the diffusion between SiC fiber and nickel matrix could be prevented. Magnetron sputtering is used to deposit Ni coating on the surface of the (Al+Al2O3)-coated SiC fiber in preparation of the precursor wires. It is shown that the deposited Ni coating combines well with the (Al+Al2O3) coating and has little negative effect on the tensile strength of (Al+Al2O3)-coated SiC fiber. Solid-state diffusion bonding process is employed to prepare the (Al+Al2O3)-coated SiC fiber reinforced nickel matrix with 37% fibers in volume. The solid-state diffusion bonding process is optimized and the optimum parameters are temperature of 870°, pressure of 50 MPa and holding time of 2 h. Under this condition, the precursor wires can diffuse well, composite of full density can be formed and the (Al+ Al2O3) coating is effective to restrict the reaction between SiC fiber and nickel matrix.
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    Novel Processing and Characterization Methods
    Analytical Investigation of Prior Austenite Grain Size Dependence of Low Temperature Toughness in Steel Weld Metal
    X.F. Zhang, P. Han, H. Terasaki, M. Sato, Y. Komizo
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 241-248. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Prior austenite grain size dependence of the low temperature impact toughness has been addressed in the bainitic weld metals by in situ observations. Usually, decreasing the grain size is the only approach by which both the strength and the toughness of a steel are increased. However, low carbon bainitic steel with small grain size shows a weakening of the low temperature impact toughness in this study. By direct tracking of the morphological evolution during phase transformation, it is found that large austenite grain size dominates the nucleation of intragranular acicular ferrite, whereas small austenite grain size leads to grain boundary nucleation of bainite. This kinetics information will contribute to meet the increasing low temperature toughness requirement of weld metals for the storage tanks and offshore structures.
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    Secondary Austenite Morphologies in Fusion Zone of Welded Joint after Postweld Heat Treatment with a Continuous Wave Laser
    Heping Liu, Xuejun Jin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 249-254. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In order to improve the weldability of duplex stainless steels, obtaining more secondary austenite in the weld metal is an effective way. Therefore, optimizing the secondary austenite by changing its morphology, volume fraction and stability may be expected to enhance the ductility of the weld. The secondary austenite morphologies in the fusion zone of the laser continuously heat treated welds of 2205 duplex stainless steel were investigated. The secondary austenite morphologies were found to be influenced by different laser power level. The secondary austenite with penniform, freely grown and dendritic shape appeared in the course of 4, 6 and 8 kW continuous heat treatment, respectively. It was found that there were three kinds of morphologies of secondary austenite in the fusion zone treated by different power, i.e., widmannstatten austenite, grain boundary austenite and intragranular austenite. The results demonstrated that the mechanism of the secondary austenite formation was a displacement mechanism during the initial austenite lath formation and a diffusion mechanism during cooling. The nitrides provided the nitrogen for the transformation and at the same time acted as nucleation sites for the secondary austenite.
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    Microhardness, Microstructure and Electrochemical Efficiency of an Al (Zn/xMg) Alloy after Thermal Treatment
    Socorro Valdez, M. Suarez, O.A. Fregoso, J.A. Juarez-Islas
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 255-260. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The influence of Mg on the microhardness, microstructure and electrochemical efficiency of Al(Zn/xMg) alloys have been investigated. Al(Zn/xMg) alloys were prepared by metal mould casting method to diminish the process cost and to generate an alloy with homogenous microstructure and less casting porosity. Vickers hardness, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were performed  to determine the Mg influence on the AlZn alloy. Electrochemical efficiency was used to relate the influence of Mg with the thermal treatment on the corrosion behavior of the Al(Zn/xMg) alloy. The results reveals the presence of Al32(MgZn)49 phase for two events; the first is when the Mg content is above 5.49% in as-cast condition, and the second after the thermal treatment is carried out at 450 oC for 5 h. The results also show that the microhardness and electrochemical efficiency have been influenced by the presence of Al32(MgZn)49 phase. The addition of Mg modifies the microstructure, increases the content of Al32(MgZn)49 phase and improves the electrochemical efficiency.
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    Regular Papers
    In Vivo and In Vitro Degradation Behavior of Magnesium Alloys as Biomaterials
    Dingchuan Xue, Yeoheung Yun, Zongqing Tan, Zhongyun Dong, Mark J. Schulz
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 261-267. 
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    The corrosion behavior of pure Mg, AZ31, and AZ91D were evaluated in various in vitro and in vivo environments to investigate the potential application of these metals as biodegradable implant materials. DC polarization tests and immersion tests were performed in different simulated body solutions, such as distilled (DI) water, simulated body fluid (SBF) and phosphate buffered solution (PBS). Mg/Mg alloys were also implanted in different places in a mouse for in vivo weight loss and biocompatibility investigations. The in vivo subcutis bio-corrosion rate was lower than the corrosion rate for all of the in vitro simulated corrosive environments. The Mg/Mg alloys were biocompatible based on histology results for the liver, heart, kidney, skin and lung of the mouse during the two months implantation. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to investigate the morphology and topography of Mg/Mg alloys after immersion testing and implantation to understand the corrosion mechanisms.
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    Synthesis, Crystal Structural and Electrical Conductivity Properties of Fe-Doped Zinc Oxide Powders at High Temperatures
    Hakan Colak, Orhan Turkoglu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 268-274. 
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    The synthesis, crystal structure and electrical conductivity properties of Fe-doped ZnO powders (in the range of 0.25-15 mol%) were reported in this paper. I-phase samples, which were indexed as single phase with a hexagonal (wurtzite) structure in the Fe-doped ZnO binary system, were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The solubility limit of Fe in the ZnO lattice is 3 mol% at 950 °C. The above mixed phase was observed. And the impurity phase was determined as the cubic-ZnFe2O4 phase when compared with standard XRD data using the PDF program. This study focused on single I-phase ZnO samples which were synthesized at 950 °C because the limit of the solubility range is the widest at this temperature. The lattice parameters a and c of
    the I-phase decreased with Fe-doping concentration. The morphology of the I-phase samples was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. The grain size of the I-phase samples increased with heat treatment and doping concentration. The electrical conductivity of the pure ZnO and single I-phase samples was investigated using the four-probe dc method at 100{950 °C in air atmosphere. The electrical conductivity values of pure ZnO, 0.25 and 3 mol% Fe-doped ZnO samples at 100 °C were 2×10-6, 1.7×10-3 and 6.3×10-4 S?cm-1, and at 950 °C they were 3.4, 8.5 and 4 S?cm-1, respectively.
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    One-pot In-situ Synthesis of Sn/Carbon-fibers Nanocomposite by Chemical Vapor Deposition and Its Li-storage Properties
    J. Xie, Yunxiao Zheng, Shuangyu Liu, Gaoshao Cao, Xinbing Zhao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 275-279. 
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    Sn/carbon-fibers (CFs) nanocomposite has been prepared by chemical vapor deposition with in-situ catalytic growth of CFs. The nanocomposite has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectrum. The electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite has been investigated by galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry (CV). It has been found that a three-dimensional conductive network forms by the intercon- nected CFs, which offers conductive channels for the Sn nanoparticles. The nanocomposite gives a first charge capacity of 385 mAh?g-1 and exhibits an improved cycling stability than bare Sn.
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    Microstructures and Dielectric Properties of Ba1-xSrxTiO3 Ceramics Doped with B2O3-Li2O Glasses for LTCC Technology Applications
    Xiujian Chou, Zhenyu Zhao, Miaoxuan Du, Jun Liu, Jiwei Zhai
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 280-284. 
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    Ba1-xSrxTiO3 ceramics, doped with B2O3-Li2O glasses have been fabricated via a traditional ceramic process at a low sintering temperature of 900 °C using liquid-phase sintering aids. The microstructures and dielectric properties of B2O3-Li2O glasses doped Ba1-xSrxTiO3 ceramics have been investigated systematically. The temperature dependence dielectric constant and loss reveals that B2O3-Li2O glasses doped Ba1-xSrxTiO3 ceramics have diffusion phase transformation characteristics. For 5 wt% B2O3-Li2O glasses doped Ba0:55Sr0:45TiO3 composites, the tunability is 15.4% under a dcpplied electric field of 30 kV/cm at 10 kHz; the dielectric loss can be controlled about 0.0025; and the Q value is 286. These composite ceramics sintered at low temperature with suitable dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, relatively high tunability and high Q value are promising candidates for multilayer low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) and potential microwave tunable devices applications.
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    Thermal Conduction and Insulation Modification in Asphalt-Based Composites
    Xiaofeng Zhou, Shengyue Wang, Chao Zhou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (3): 285-288. 
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    The relationship between thermal conductivity and properties of mixing particles is required for quantitative study of heat transfer processes in asphalt-based materials. In this paper, we measured the effective thermal conductivity of asphalt-based materials with thermal conduction (graphite) and insulation (cenosphere) powders modification. By taking account of the particle shape, volume fraction, the thermal conductivity of filling particles and base asphalt, we present a new differential effective medium formula to predict the thermal conductivity modification in asphalt-based composite. Our theoretical predications are in good agreement with the experiment data. The new model can be applied for predicting the thermal properties of asphalt-based mixture, which is available for most of thermal modification in two-phase composites.
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CN: 21-1315/TG
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