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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      30 January 2012, Volume 28 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Invited Review
    Metal Fabrication by Additive Manufacturing Using Laser and Electron Beam Melting Technologies
    Lawrence E. Murr, Sara M. Gaytan, Diana A. Ramirez, Edwin Martinez, Jennifer Hernandez, Krista N. Amato, Patrick W. Shindo, Francisco R. Medina, Ryan B. Wicker
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (1): 1-14. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) are relatively new rapid, additive manufacturing technologies which can allow for the fabrication of complex, multi-functional metal or alloy monoliths by CAD-directed, selective melting of precursor powder beds. By altering the beam parameters and scan strategies, new and unusual, even non-equilibrium microstructures can be produced; including controlled microstructural architectures which ideally extend the contemporary materials science and engineering paradigm relating structure-properties-processing-performance. In this study, comparative examples for SLM and EBM fabricated components from pre-alloyed, atomized precursor powders are presented. These include Cu, Ti-6Al-4V, alloy 625 (a Ni-base superalloy), a Co-base superalloy, and 17-4 PH stainless steel. These systems are characterized by optical metallography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction.
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    Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    One Pot Synthesis and Characterization of Cesium Doped SnO2 Nanocrystals via a Hydrothermal Process
    K. Kaviyarasu, Prem Anand Devarajan, S. Stanly John Xavier, S. Augustine Thomas, S. Selvakumar
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (1): 15-20. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The physico-chemical properties of cesium doped SnO2 nanocrystals synthesized by wet chemical method have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) analyses, UV-vis-NIR spectral studies and dielectric studies were carried out for both pure SnO2 and cesium doped SnO2 nano-samples. All samples of SnO2 did not show any metallic cluster, but the sample containing cesium as a dopant displayed significant activity. The products formed were chloride and water representing a competitive advantage from the stand point of environmental protection.
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    Influence of Annealing Conditions on Nanocrystalline and Ultra-Soft Magnetic Properties of Fe75.5Cu1Nb1Si13.5B9 Alloy
    S.P. Mondal, Kazi Hanium Maria, S.S. Sikder, Shamima Choudhury, D.K. Saha, M.A. Hakim
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (1): 21-26. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The magnetic and structural properties of FINEMET alloy with a composition of Fe75.5Cu1Nb1Si13.5B9 were investigated after primary and secondary crystallization of amorphous ribbon sample. The crystallization behavior and the nanocrystal formation of the samples were performed by differential thermal analysis (DTA) which in turn was supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. Temperature dependence of initial permeability of amorphous and devitri¯ed toroid shaped samples has been measured. Enhancement of Curie temperature of the amorphous alloy has been observed due to the irreversible structural relaxation. With the appearance of nanocrystalline phase the Curie temperature of the residual amorphous phase gradually decrease with the increase of annealing temperature. Their temperature dependence reflects the characteristic annealing temperature evolution of the basic magnetic parameters in these nanocrystalline systems. Saturation magnetization, Ms, increases with annealing temperature Ta for the samples and finally decreases during annealing at a temperature much higher than peak crystallization temperature.
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    Kinetics and Nanostructure Dependence of High Temperature-Low Stress Creep of Al and Al-0.3%Fe
    M. Abo-Elsoud
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (1): 27-33. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The novel nanostructure of Al and Al{Fe were prepared by ball milling alumina with elemental Fe. The kinetics and nanostructure dependence of high temperature low stress Newtonian creep of Al and Al-0.3%Fe have been investigated and compared with the predications of the Nabarro{Herring (N-H) theory of directional diffusion. A simple theory based on the climb controlled generation of dislocations from a fixed density of sources is developed to explain the observed behavior. The dislocation density increases and subgrains form during the creep. Also, the presence of precipitates of FeAl3 reduces the creep rate of Al by absolute faster of 100 at the same stress and temperature, in spite of the fact that the grain size in the Al-0.3%Fe alloy is smaller by a factor of about 100 nm. The reduction of grain size to the nanometer scale improves their mechanical properties. Electron diffraction methods combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies are a convenient and powerful technique for the characterization of the phases and grain structure of the resulting materials.
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    Effects of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes on the Electromagnetic Absorbing Characteristics of Composites Filled with Carbonyl Iron Particles
    Yonggang Xu, Deyuan Zhang, Jun Cai, Liming Yuan, Wenqiang Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (1): 34-40. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbing property of silicone rubber filled with carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was examined. Absorbents including MWCNTs and spherical/ flaky CIPs were added to silicone rubber using a two-roll mixer. The complex permittivity and complex permeability were measured over the frequency range of 1{18 GHz. The two EM parameters were verified and the uniform dispersion of MWCNTs and CIPs was confirmed by comparing the measured reflection loss (RL) with the calculated one. As the MWCNT weight percent increased, the RL of the spherical CIPs/silicone rubber composites changed insignificantly. It was attributed to the random distribution of spherical CIPs and less content of MWCNTs. On the contrary, for composites filled with flaky CIPs the absorption bandwidth increased at thickness 0.5 mm (RL value lower than -5 dB in 8-18 GHz) and the absorption ratio increased at lower frequency (minimum {35 dB at 3.5 GHz). This effect was attributed to the oriented distribution of flaky CIPs caused by interactions between the two absorbents. Therefore, mixing MWCNTs and flaky CIPs could achieve wider-band and higher-absorption ratio absorbing materials.
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    Annealing-induced Grain Refinement in a Nanostructured Ferritic Steel
    Limin Wang, Zhenbo Wang, Sheng Guo, Ke Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (1): 41-45. 
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    A nanostructured surface layer with a mean ferrite grain size of ~8 nm was produced on a Fe-9Cr steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment. Upon annealing, ferrite grains coarsen with increasing temperature and their sizes increase to ~40 nm at 973 K. Further increasing annealing temperature leads to an obvious reduction of ferrite grain sizes, to ~14 nm at 1173 K. The annealing-induced grain refinement is analyzed in terms of phase transformations in the nanostructured steel.
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    Novel Processing and Characterization Methods
    Bi Layer Formation at the Anode Interface in Cu/Sn-58Bi/Cu Solder Joints with High Current Density
    Hongwen He, Haiyan Zhao, Fu Guo, Guangchen Xu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (1): 46-52. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Bi layer formation in Cu/Sn{58Bi/Cu solder joints was investigated with different current densities and solder thickness. Uniform and continuous Bi layers were formed at the anode interface which indicated that Bi was the main diffusing species migrating from the cathode to the anode. The electromigration force and Joule heating took on the main driving forces for Bi diffusion and migration. In addition, two appearance types of  Bi layers, planar-type and groove-type, were found during current stressing. The morphology and thickness of Bi layers were affected by current density and current stressing time.
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    Evolution of Intermetallic Compounds between Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu Low-silver Lead-free Solder and Cu Substrate during Thermal Aging
    Niwat Mookam, Kannachai Kanlayasiri
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (1): 53-59. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The growth, transformation, and lattice structure of intermetallic compounds formed between Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu lead-free solder and copper substrate were investigated. Dip soldering was used to initiate the reaction between the solder and substrate. An μ-Cu6Sn5 intermetallic phase possessing a hexagonal lattice structure was found at the as-soldered interface. Thermal aging at a number of conditions resulted in the formation of a Cu3Sn intermetallic phase between the Cu6Sn5 layer and the copper substrate. ε-Cu3Sn with an orthorhombic lattice structure was found together with hexagonal Cu3Sn. Subsequently, the activation energies of the intermetallic phases were calculated and compared to results obtained from the literature. The comparison showed that good agreement existed between the findings from this study and literature data within a similar temperature range.
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    Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Plasma Nitriding Cast CoCrMo Alloy
    Qingliang Wang, Chuanhui Huang, Lei Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (1): 60-66. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A medical cast CoCrMo alloy was coated by plasma nitriding process to enhance the wear resistance. The microstructures, phases and micro-hardness of nitrided layers were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-hardness. Tribological properties were investigated on a pin-on-disc wear tester under 25% bovine serum solutions. The experimental results showed that plasma nitriding was a promising process to produce thick, hard and wear resistant layers on the surface of CoCrMo alloy. The harder CrN and Cr2N phases formed on the plasma nitrided layer with the compact nano-crystalline structure. Compared with the untreated sample, all nitrided samples showed the lower wear rates and higher wear resistance at different applied loads and nitriding temperatures. It was concluded that the improvement of wear resistance could be ascribed to the formation of thicker and harder nitrided layers with the specific microstructures on nitrided surfaces.
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    Effect of Substrate Surface Microstructure on Heterogeneous Nucleation Behavior
    Ying Zhang, Meng Wang, Xin Lin, Weidong Huang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (1): 67-72. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The heterogeneous nucleation behaviors of NH4Cl crystal on a rough chilling surface of aluminum immerged in NH4Cl-H2O solution were experimentally analyzed and the relationship between the surface roughness and the nucleation site selection behaviors on polished aluminum substrate was investigated, and it was discovered that the number of nucleation sites decreases significantly with decreasing the roughness of the polished substrate. Further nucleation experiments were carried out on chemically etched aluminum substrate with regular micromorphology on its surface. It has been shown that both the micro-morphology and the wettability vary with the substrate surface prepared by different etching process. The prepared surface with step-like structures has a strong wettability with NH4Cl-70 wt% H2O solution and the nucleation density of NH4Cl on the its surfaces is significantly higher than that of the reference surfaces, which shows that the geometrical morphology features have important effects on both the wettability and the nucleation behaviors.
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    Regular Papers
    Effects of Fe2O3 Nanoparticles on Water Permeability and Strength Assessments of High Strength Self-Compacting Concrete
    Ali Khoshakhlagh, Ali Nazari, Gholamreza Khalaj
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (1): 73-82. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this work, compressive, flexural and split tensile strength together with coefficient of water absorption of high performance self-compacting concrete containing different amount of Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been investigated. The strength and the water permeability of the specimens have been improved by adding Fe2O3 nanoparticles in the cement paste up to 4.0 wt%. Fe2O3 nanoparticle as a foreign nucleation site could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount especially at the early age of hydration and hence increase the strength of the specimens. In addition, Fe2O3 nanoparticles are able to act as nanofillers and recover the pore structure of the specimens by decreasing harmful pores to improve the water permeability. Several empirical relations have been presented to predict the flexural and the split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results indicate that Fe2O3 nanoparticles up to 4 wt% could improve the mechanical and the physical properties of the specimens.
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    Computer-aided Prediction of the ZrO2 Nanoparticles' Effects on Tensile Strength and Percentage of Water Absorption of Concrete Specimens
    Ali Nazari, Shadi Riahi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (1): 83-96. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In the present paper, two models based on artificial neural networks and genetic programming for predicting split tensile strength and percentage of water absorption of concretes containing ZrO2 nanoparticles have been developed at different ages of curing. For building these models, training and testing using experimental results for 144 specimens produced with 16 different mixture proportions were conducted. The data used in the multilayer feed forward neural networks models and input variables of genetic programming models were arranged in a format of eight input parameters that cover the cement content, nanoparticle content, aggregate type, water content, the amount of superplasticizer, the type of curing medium, age of curing and number of testing try. According to these input parameters, in the neural networks and genetic programming models, the split tensile strength and percentage of water absorption values of concretes containing ZrO2 nanoparticles were predicted. The training and testing results in the neural network and genetic programming models have shown that two models have strong potential for predicting the split tensile strength and percentage of water absorption values of concretes containing ZrO2 nanoparticles. It has been found that neural network (NN) and gene expression programming (GEP) models will be valid within the ranges of variables. In neural networks model, as the training and testing ended when minimum error norm of network gained, the best results were obtained and in genetic programming model, when 4 genes were selected to construct the model, the best results were acquired. Although neural network have predicted better results, genetic programming is able to predict reasonable values with a simpler method rather than neural network.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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