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      30 November 2011, Volume 27 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    Photoanode Activity of ZnO Nanotube Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
    R. Ranjusha, P. Lekha, K.R.V. Subramanian, V. Nair Shantikumar, A. Balakrishnan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 961-966. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Vertical ZnO nanotube (ZNT) arrays were synthesized onto an indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by a simple electrochemical deposition technique followed by a selective etching process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed formation of well-faceted hexagonal ZNT arrays spreading uniformly over a large area. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of ZNT layer showed substantially higher intensity for the (0002) diffraction peak, indicating that the ZnO crystallites were well aligned with their c-axis. Profilometer measurements of the ZNT layer showed an average thickness of ~7μm. Diameter size distribution (DSD) analysis showed that ZNTs exhibited a narrow diameter size distribution in the range of 65-120 nm and centered at ~75 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum measurement showed violet and blue luminescence peaks that were centered at 410 and 480 nm, respectively, indicating the presence of internal defects. Ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopy showed major absorbance  peak at ~348 nm, exhibiting an increase in energy gap value of 3.4 eV. By employing the formed ZNTs as the photo-anode for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), a full-sun conversion efficiency of 1.01% was  achieved with a fill factor of 54%. Quantum efficiency studies showed the maximum of incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency in a visible region located at 520{550 nm range.
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    Effect of Preparation Conditions on the Crystallinity of Chemically Synthesized BCNO Nanophosphor
    Lakhwant Singh, Vibha Chopra
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 967-972. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The carbon based boron oxynitride (BCNO) phosphor was synthesized by solid state reaction between boric acid (H3BO3) and melamine (C3H6N6) in the molar ratios of 1:1 and 2:1 respectively at different temperatures up to 1400°C. The composition with molar ratios 1:1 of starting materials is found to be highly crystalline with an average particle size of 38 nm and the lattice constants a=b=0.251 nm and c=0.666 nm. The solid state reaction of boric acid and melamine in the composition 2:1 leads to the formation of compound in the semi-crystalline state under the same conditions of preparation, but its phase cannot be recognised. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of BCNO compound confirm the phase, nanometre size and shape respectively of synthesized material. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the synthesized BCNO products reveals that the electronic structure of BCNO compound can be controlled by changing the molar ratios of starting materials and heating temperatures. These synthesized compounds are very interesting and important candidate materials for light emitter.
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    Influence of Magnetic Field and Lighting during the Creation Process of Nanohybrid Semiconductor-Nematic Structures on Their Impedance and Photo Response
    Fedir Ivashchyshyn, Ivan Grygorchak, Olena Sudakova, Igor Bordun, Miroslav Micov
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 973-978. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this work, for the first time, photosensitive nanostructures with alternate semiconductor and magnetic oriented nematic molecular nanolayers were obtained. The established dependency on the ordering type of kinetic and optical properties is deserving attention. For the first time, the notion of `rotary' polaron in such structures is introduced and microscopic model is created, which explains band structure transformation. The model is well coordinated with experimental optical data, which, at the same time, indicate the prospects of application of materials obtained due to the intercalation engineering for photoenergetics.
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    Analysis of the Interaction of Pulsed Laser with Nanoporous Activated Carbon Cloth
    B.V. Kaludjerovic, M.S. Trtica, B.B. Radak, J.M. Stasic, S.S. Krstic Musovic, V.M. Dodevski
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 979-984. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Interaction of pulsed transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2-laser radiation at 10.6 μm with nanoporous activated carbon cloth was investigated. Activated carbon cloth of different adsorption characteristics was used. Activated carbon cloth modifications were initiated by laser pulse intensities from 0.5 to 28 MW/cm2, depending on the cloth adsorption characteristics. CO2 laser radiation was effectively absorbed by the used activated carbon cloth and largely converted into thermal energy. The type of modification depended on laser power density, number of pulses, but mostly on material characteristics such as specific surface area. The higher the surface area of activated carbon cloth, the higher the damage threshold.
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    Thermal Growth and Nanomagnetism of the Quasi-one Dimensional Iron Oxide
    Minglong Zhong, Zhongwu Liu, Xichun Zhong, Hongya Yu, Dechang Zeng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 985-990. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Quasi-one dimensional iron oxide nanowires with flat needle shape were synthesized on the iron powders by a rather simple catalyst-free thermal oxidation process in ambient atmosphere. The characterization by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction  (XRD), Raman and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed that these nanostructures are single crystalline α-Fe2O3. The various dimensions with 40-170 nm in width and 1-8 μm in length were obtained by tuning the growth temperature from 280 to 480°C. A surface diffusion mechanism was proposed to account for the growth of quasi-one dimensional nanostructure. The typical α-Fe2O3 nanowires
    synthesized at 430°C had a reduced Morin temperature TM of 131 K in comparison with their bulk counterpart. The coercivitis Hc of these nanowires are 321 and 65 Oe at 5 and 300 K, respectively. The temperature of synthesis also has important effects on the magnetic properties of these nanowires.
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    Structural & Magnetic Characterizations of NiLiZn Nanoferrites Synthesized by Co-precipitation Method
    D.N. Rohadiana, Z.A.Z. Jamal, S.B. Jamaludin, M.F. Bari, J. Adnan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 991-995. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Synthesis of Ni0:5LixZn(0.5-x)Fe2O4 nanoparticles with x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 were realized via coprecipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements were performed on the samples to determine the characteristics of the crystal structures and the magnetic properties of the samples, respectively. The spinel phase structures of the samples were confirmed by XRD analysis. Patterns of decreased lattice parameter and increased crystallite size values were observed by increasing the Li concentration at longer synthesis reaction periods. Similarly, for the magnetic properties, both the saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity (Hc) were found to vary with increasing patterns at higher Li doping levels and longer synthesis reaction periods. The results and mechanisms concerned were discussed.
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    Fabrication and Magnetic Property of One-dimensional SrTiO3/SrFe12O19 Composite Nanofibers by Electrospinning
    Qingrong Liang, Xiangqian Shen, Fuzhan Song, Mingquan Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 996-1000. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The composite nanofibers of SrTiO3/SrFe12O19 with a molar ratio of 1:1 and diameter about 120 nm were prepared by electrospinning. Effects of calcination temperature on the formation, crystallite size, morphology and magnetic property were studied by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The binary phase of strontium ferrite and titanate was formed after being calcined at 900°C for 2 h and the composite nanofibers were fabricated from nanograins of SrTiO3 about 24 nm and SrFe12O19 around 33 nm. The crystallite sizes for the nanofibers increase with increasing calcination temperature and the addition of SrTiO3 has an obvious suppression effect on SrFe12O19 grain
    growth. The specific saturation magnetization and remanence tend to increase with the crystallite size. With increasing calcination temperature from 900 to 1050°C, the coercivity increases initially, achieving a maximum value of 520.2 kA?m-1 at 950°C, and then shows a reduction tendency.
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    Novel Processing and Characterization Methods
    In-situ One-pot Preparation of LiFePO4/Carbon-Nanofibers Composites and Their Electrochemical Performance
    Jiaohui Zhang, Jian Xie, Chunyang Wu, Gaoshao Cao, Xinbing Zhao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1001-1005. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A novel in-situ route was employed to synthesize LiFePO4/carbon-nanofibers (CNFs) composites. The route combined high-temperature solid phase reaction with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe2O3 and LiH2PO4 as the precursors for LiFePO4 growth and acetylene (C2H2) as the carbon source for CNFs growth. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical performance of the composites was studied by galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results showed that the in-situ CNFs growth could be realized by the catalytic effect of the Fe2O3 precursor. The sample after 80 min CVD reaction showed the best electrochemical performance, indicating a promising application in high-power Li-ion batteries.
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    Articles
    Modified Carbothermal Synthesis of TiC Whiskers
    Ruixiang Cao, Cuirong Liu, Zhisheng Wu, Jinsheng Pan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1006-1010. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A new approach to the massive production of TiC whiskers with high purity and low cost was presented. It is a modified carbothermal reduction method (MCTR) characterized by argon stream flowing vertically and passing through the interior of the mixture of raw materials. It is found for the first time that there is an optimum flow of the upward flowing argon stream, at which large quantity of high quality TiC can be obtained. This paper described the new method, analyzed the mechanism and conditions for the formation of high purity TiC whiskers on a large scale, and compared MCTR with the traditional carbothermal reduction method (TCTR). Based on the analysis and comparison, it is concluded that in order to produce high quality transition metal
    carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides with low cost TCTR must be replaced by MCTR.
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    Low Temperature Synthesis of Single-crystal Alpha Alumina Platelets by Calcining Bayerite and Potassium Sulfate
    Xinghua Su, Jiangong Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1011-1015. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    μSingle-crystal alpha alumina (α-Al2O3) platelets were synthesized by calcining a powder mixture of bayerite (α-Al(OH)3) and potassium sulfate (K2SO4) at 900°C. The crystalline phase evolutions and morphologies of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized samples mainly consisted of single-crystal α-Al2O3 platelets with a diameter of 0.5-1.5 μm and a thickness of 50-150 nm. Moreover, with 3, 5, and 8 wt% (referred to the obtained alumina) α-Al2O3 seeds adding into the powder mixture of bayerite and potassium sulfate, the average diameter of α-Al2O3 platelets can be reduced to 450, 240, and 220 nm, respectively. It is found that the sequence of the phase transformation is the bayerite (α-Al(OH)3) →boehmite (γ-AlOOH) →γ-Al2O3→α-Al2O3. Further analysis indicated that K2SO4 can promote the phase transformation from γ-Al2O3 to α-Al2O3 and the formation of single-crystal α-Al2O3 platelets might be attributed to the liquid phase K3Al(SO4)3.
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    Electrodeposition and Characterization of Ni/Ti3Si(Al)C2 Composite Coatings
    Ying Liang, Mingyue Liu, Jixin Chen, Xiaoxia Liu, Yanchun Zhou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1016-1024. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Pure nickel and Ni/Ti3Si(Al)C2 composite coatings were prepared by electrodeposition method from an additive-free nickel Watt's bath and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, laser confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of current and Ti3Si(Al)C2 concentration in the solution on the composition, grain size, preferred orientation and surface morphology of the electrodeposited coatings were investigated. (200)-oriented Ni coatings could be deposited at high current (62.5 mA), while (220)-oriented Ni coatings could be obtained at low current (25 mA). However, the presence of Ti3Si(Al)C2 particles disturbed the surface texture of Ni crystallites in the composite coatings. Based on the simulated morphology and the observed microstructure, the mechanisms for the change of preferred orientation and crystallite shapes in the presence of Ti3Si(Al)C2 particles were discussed. Moreover, microhardness and friction properties of pure nickel and Ni/Ti3Si(Al)C2 composite coatings were also compared.
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    Modeling and Simulations
    Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Porous Layer-enhanced Dislocation Emission and Crack Propagation in Iron Crystal
    D. Li, F.Y. Meng, X.Q. Ma, L.J. Qiao, W.Y. Chu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1025-1028. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The internal stress induced by a porous layer or passive layer can assist the applied stress to promote dislocation emission and crack propagation, e:g: when the pipeline steel is buried in the soil containing water, resulting in stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is performed to study the process of dislocation emission and crack propagation in a slab of Fe crystal with and without a porous layer on the surface of the crack. The results show that when there is a porous layer on the surface of the crack, the tensile stress induced by the porous layer can superimpose on the external applied stress and then assist the applied stress to initiate crack tip dislocation emission under lowered stress intensity KI, or stress. To respond to
    the corrosion accelerated dislocation emission and motion, the crack begins to propagate under lowered stress intensity KI; resulting in SCC.
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    Mechanical Properties and Defective Effects of 316LN Stainless Steel by First-Principles Simulations
    X.Q. Li, J.J. Zhao, J.C. Xu, X. Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1029-1033. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In current International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design, the 316LN austenitic stainless steel (316LN SS) is used for first-wall/blanket structures. Thus, it is necessary to study the fundamental mechanical properties and irradiation effect of 316LN SS. A random solid solution model of Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Mo-Si alloy is used for describing 316LN SS. Using first-principles approaches, the elastic constants and ideal strength of the alloy were calculated. Such alloy exhibits good ductile behavior according to the theoretical values of Cauchy pressure and ratio of bulk modulus and shear modulus. Within the 256-atom supercell, inclusion of single vacancy defect further enhances the ductility of the alloy, and the existence of interstitial (Fe, H, He) atoms enhances the Young0s modulus.
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    Iron and Steel
    Effect of Electropulsing on Recrystallization and Mechanical Properties of Silicon Steel Strips
    Guoliang Hu, Yaohua Zhu, Guoyi Tang, Chanhung Shek, Jianan Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1034-1038. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Electropulsing-induced recrystallization and its effect on mechanical properties of oriented silicon steel strips (Fe-3.0%Si) were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron back-scatter diffraction. The results indicated that electropulsing accelerated recrystallization, and decreased the temperature of recrystallization. Electropulsing favors refinement of the grain structure of the alloy. Effects of electropulsing on strength and elongation of the alloy were discussed from the point view of dislocation dynamics, microstructural changes, and electropulsing kinetics.
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    Stress Corrosion Cracking of X80 Pipeline Steel in Near-Neutral pH Environment under Constant Load Tests with and without Preload
    Y.Z. Jia, J.Q. Wang, E.H. Han, W. Ke
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1039-1046. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Constant load tests in NS4 solution purged with N2-5%CO2 gas mixture were conducted on American Petroleum Institute (API) X80 pipeline steel applied in the 2nd West-East Gas Pipeline project with and without preload. The results show that cracks could initiate and propagate in X80 pipeline steel in near-neutral pH environment under a constant load condition. The life of crack initiation and propagation increased with decreasing applied stress. Preload
    did not change its corrosion behavior obviously. However, preload reduced the time for crack initiation.
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    Resistance Spot Weldability of Dissimilar Materials: BH180-AISI304L Steels and BH180-IF7123 Steels
    Fatih Hayat
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1047-1058. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this study, resistance spot weldability of 180 grade bake hardening steel (BH180), 7123 grade interstitial free steel (IF7123) and 304 grade austenitic stainless steel (AISI304L) with each other was investigated. In the joining process, electrode pressure and weld current were kept constant and six different weld time were chosen. Microstructure, microhardness, tensile-shear properties and fracture types of resistance spot welded joints were examined. In order to characterize the metallurgical structure of the welded joint, the microstructural profile was developed, and the relationship between mechanical properties and microstructure was determined. The change of weld time, nugget diameter, the HAZ (heat affected zone) width and the electrode immersion depth were also investigated. Welded joints were examined by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images of fracture surface. As a result of the experiment, it was determined that with increasing weld time, tensile shear load bearing capacity (TLBC) increased with weld time up to 25 cycle and two types of tearing  occurred. It was also determined that while the failure occurred from IF side at the BH180+IF7123 joint, it occurred from the BH180 side at the BH180+AISI304L joint.
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    Improvement of Stress-rupture Life for Modified-HR6W Austenitic Stainless Steel
    Shiyun Cui, Zixing Zhang, Yulai Xu, Jun Li, Xueshan Xiao, Changchun Zhu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1059-1064. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Stress-rupture life of HR6W austenitic stainless steel modified with B and Mg additions was measured, and the microstructures were analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results indicated that the enhancement of the stress-rupture life was mainly due to the precipitation with B in the elemental form at the grain boundaries, and the improvement of the form of carbides at grain boundaries and the removal of O and S elements by addition of Mg. The micro-alloying elements have a beneficial effect on stress-rupture life of the modified-HR6W austenitic stainless steel at high temperature.
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    Analysis of Micro-texture during Secondary Recrystallization in a Hi-B Electrical Steel
    Mengqi Yan, Hao Qian, Ping Yang, Weimin Mao, Qiwu Jian, Wenxu Jin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1065-1071. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The understanding of Goss texture in Hi-B electrical steels possesses significant industrial and academic value, thus attracts worldwide attention. The prevailing models for sharp Goss texture formation during secondary recrystallization are CSL (coincident site lattice) boundary theory and HE (high energy) boundary theory. These theories stress the key factor of preferred growth and the difference between them only lies in the specific selection manner. This work examined the texture gradient in primarily recrystallized sheet and demonstrated its possible influence on the formation of secondary grains, and then determined the microtexture during different stages of secondary recrystallization using EBSD (electron back-scattered diffraction) technique, finally analyzed a special type of secondary grains with near Brass orientation, which were detected in the later stage of secondary recrystallization, and discussed its origin and effect in terms of surface energy effect. The results indicate that texture gradient in primarily recrystallized sheet will lead to a multi-stage formation of Goss texture, namely, early stage of secondary grains with various orientations in subsurface region, intermediate stage of preferred growth of Goss grains into center layer and re-grow back to the surface and the final stage of Goss grain growth by swallowing slowly the island grains with the help of H2  atmosphere.
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    Regular Papers
    Inhibition of Electromigration in Eutectic SnBi Solder Interconnect by Plastic Prestraining
    X.F. Zhang, H.Y. Liu, J.D. Guo, J.K. Shang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1072-1076. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Plastic prestraining was applied to a solder interconnect to introduce internal defects such as dislocations in order to investigate the interaction of dislocations with electromigration damage. Above a critical prestrain, Bi interfacial segregation to the anode, a clear indication of electromigration damage in SnBi solder interconnect, was effectively prevented. Such an inhibiting effect is apparently contrary to the common notion that dislocations often act as fast diffusion paths. It is suggested that the dislocations introduced by plastic prestraining acted as sinks for vacancies in the early stage of the electromigration process, but as the vacancies accumulated at the dislocations, climb of those dislocations prompted recovery of the deformed samples under
    current stressing, greatly decreasing the density of dislocation and vacancy in the solder, leading to slower diffusion of Bi atoms.
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    Competitive Nucleation and Rapid Growth of Co-Si Intermetallic Compounds during Eutectic Solidification under Containerless Processing Conditionion
    Wenjing Yao, Zipeng Ye, Nan Wang, Xiujun Han, Jianyuan Wang, Xixing Wen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1077-1082. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The liquid-solid transitions of (Co2Si+CoSi) and (CoSi+CoSi2) eutectic alloys were realized in drop tube and the rapid eutectic growth mechanism of intermetallic compounds was examined. The experimental and calculated results indicate that with increasing Co content, the intermetallic compound prefers nucleating primarily. The eutectic microstructures experience the transitions of `lamellar-anomalous-divorced' eutectic with undercooling. In undercooled state, the growth of CoSi intermetallic compound always lags behind others, and no matter how large the undercooling is, this intermetallic compound grows under the solutal diffusion control. The calculated coupled zone demonstrates that (Co2Si+CoSi) eutectic can form within certain undercooling regime, when the composition is in the range from 23.6% to 25.4% Si. And the calculated coupled zone of (CoSi+CoSi2) covers a composition range from 40.8% to 43.8% Si.
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    Effect of Compression with Oscillatory Torsion Processing on Structure and Properties of Cu
    Kinga Rodak, Jacek Pawlicki
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (11): 1083-1088. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The results presented in this study were concerned with microstructures and mechanical properties of polycrystalline Cu subjected to plastic deformation by a compression with oscillatory torsion process. Different deformation parameters of the compression with oscillatory torsion process were adopted to study their effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties. The deformed microstructure was characterized quantitatively by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Mechanical properties were determined on an MTS QTest/10 machine equipped with digital image correlation. From the experimental results, processes performed at high compression speed and high torsion frequency are ecommended for refining the grain size. The size of structure elements, such as average grain size (D) and subgrain size (d), reached 0.42 μm and 0.30 μm, respectively, and the fraction of high angle boundaries was 35% when the sample was deformed at a torsion frequency f =1.6 Hz and compression rate v =0.04 mm/s. These deformation parameters led to an improvement in the strength properties. The material exhibited an ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 434 MPa and a yield strength (YS) of 418 MPa. These values were about  two times greater than those of the initial state.
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