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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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  Current Issue
      28 April 2011, Volume 27 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    Microwave Synthesis of Cuprous Oxide Micro-/Nanocrystals with Different Morphologies and Photocatalytic Activities
    Qingwei Zhu, Yihe Zhang, Jiajun Wang, Fengshan Zhou, Paul K. Chu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 289-295. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Cuprous oxide micro-/nanocrystals were synthesized by using a simple liquid phase reduction process under microwave rradiation. Copper sulfate was used as the starting materials and macromolecule surfactants served as the templates. The morphologies phase and optical properties of them are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection absorptive spectra (UV-vis/DRS), respectively. The crystals had four different shapes, namely spheres, strips, octahedrons, and dandelions. The photocatalytic behavior of the cuprous oxide particles were investigated by monitoring the degradation of rhodamine B. In spite of the different morphologies, all of the cuprous oxide micro-/nanocrystals exhibited photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation in the following order: dandelions, strips, spheres, and octahedral crystals. The photocatalytic degradation rates of rhodamine B are 56.37%, 55.68%, 51.83% and 46.16%, respectively. The morphology affects significantly the photocatalytic performance.
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    Low Temperature Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes via Floating Catalyst Chemical Vapor Deposition Method
    M.R. Atiyah, D.R. Awang Biak, F. Ahmadun, I.S. Ahamad, F. Mohd Yasin, H. Mohamed Yusoff
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 296-300. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) below 600°C using supporting catalyst chemical vapor deposition method was reported by many research groups. However, the floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition received less attention due to imperfect nanotubes produced. In this work, the effects of varying the preheating temperature on the synthesis of CNT were investigated. The reaction temperature was set at 570°C. The preheating set temperature was varied from 150 to 400°C at 50°C interval. Three O-ring shape heating mantels were used as heating source for the preheater. In situ monitoring device was used to observe the temperature profile in the reactor. Benzene and ferrocene were used as the carbon source and catalyst precursor, respectively. Vertically aligned CNTs were synthesized when the preheating temperature was set at 400°C. When the preheating temperature was increased up to 400°C, both the length and the alignment of CNTs produced were improved.
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    Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Turfs
    Mohammad Al-Khedher, Charles Pezeshki, Jeanne McHale, Fritz Knorr
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 301-308. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Several characterization methods have been developed to investigate the mechanical and structural properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs). Establishing analytical models at nanoscale to interpret these properties is complicated due to the nonuniformity and irregularity in quality of as-grown samples. In this paper, we propose a new methodology to investigate the correlation between indentation resistance of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) turfs, Raman spectra and the geometrical properties of the turf structure using adaptive neuro-fuzzy phenomenological modeling. This methodology yields a novel approach for modeling at the nanoscale by evaluating the e®ect of structural morphologies on nanomaterial properties
    using Raman spectroscopy.
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    Biomaterials
    Antibacterial Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Nitrogen-doped TiO2 Coatings on Stainless Steel
    Hefeng Wang, Bin Tang, Xiuyan Li, Yong Ma
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 309-316. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The Nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N{TiO2) coatings were fabricated on 304 austenitic stainless steel (SS) substrates by oxidation of titanium nitride coatings, which were prepared by plasma surface alloying technique. Microstructural investigation, corrosion tests and antibacterial tests were conducted to study the properties of N-TiO2 coatings. Composition analysis shows that the SS substrates were shielded by the N-TiO2 coatings entirely. The N-TiO2 coatings are anatase in structure as characterized by X-ray diffraction. The corrosion properties of N-TiO2 coated SS samples in Hanks' solution were investigated by a series of tests. The electrochemical measurements indicate that the corrosion potential positively shifts from -0.275 V for untrated SS to -0.267 V for N-TiO2, while the corrosion current density decreases from 1.3×10-5 A/cm2 to 4.1×10-6/cm2. The corrosion resistance obtained by fitting the impedance spectra also reveals that the N-TiO2 coatings provide good protection for SS substrate against corrosion in Hanks' solution. Electrochemistry noise tests indicate that the N{TiO2 coatings effectively retard the local pitting and crevice corrosion of the SS substrate. The results of the antibacterial test reveal that N-TiO2 coatings give 304 austenitic SS an excellent antibacterial property.
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    In vitro Biological E®ects of Ti2448 Alloy Modified by Micro-arc Oxidation and Alkali Heatment
    Xue Han, Hongchen Liu, Dongsheng Wang, Shujun Li, Rui Yang, Xiaojie Tao, Xiaohong Jiang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 317-324. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the combination of micro-arc oxidation and alkali heatment (MAH) would improve the cytocompatibility of a newly designed Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn alloy. In this study, commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) and Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn were used. Surface modification of Ti-24Nb- 4Zr-8Sn by a two-step treatment of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and alkali heatment was reported. Surface characterizations were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thin film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The MAH layer consisted of finer crystals and possessed a higher degree of crystallity and stability than the MAO layer. A biocompatibility study on treated and untreated Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn in comparison with cp Ti was carried out to investigate the effect of the different surfaces on the bone integration property in vitro. The cellular assays revealed that the MAO and MAH layer favored the initial adhesion of MC3T3-E1 cells and that the growth rate of MC3T3-E1 cells on MAH layer was ignificantly
    higher than that on the conventional MAO-treated layer after 3-day and 5-day incubation, demonstrating the greater potential of the hybrid treatment of micro-arc oxidation followed with alkali heatment as a novel surface modification method for implanting materials.
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    In vitro Study on a New High Nitrogen Nickel-free Austenitic Stainless Steel for Coronary Stents
    Yibin Ren, Peng Wan, Feng Liu, Bingchun Zhang, Ke Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 325-331. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Most commercialized coronary stents are made of 316L stainless steels due to its good combination of properties, and currently some new stents are made of cobalt-based alloy owing to its higher mechanical properties. However, the presence of high quantity of nickel and/or cobalt elements in these materials, which are known to trigger the toxic and allergic responses, has caused many concerns. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels have been developed in order to solve these problems. In this paper, based on the development of a new Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-N type high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel, properties such as mechanical property, corrosion resistance in Hank0s solution, and in vitro blood compatibility including the kinetic clotting time and the platelets adhesion, were investigated in comparison to the above two conventional materials, a 316L stainless steel and a Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The results showed that the new high nitrogen steel possessed better combination of mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and blood compatibility than those of 316L steel and the Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, and can be a promising alternative material for manufacture of coronary stents.
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    Yttria Tetragonal Zirconia Biomaterials: Kinetic Investigation
    Ezzat S. Elshazly, S.M. El-Hout, M. El-Sayed Ali
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 332-337. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The low temperature aging behavior of polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia was investigated to explore the effects on phase transformation occurring during the process. XRD analysis was conducted for the phase identification and the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation was determined. The aging of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals doped with 3 mol% Y2O3 triggers tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation on the surface of the specimen only, while the penetration inside the bulk of the specimen is very limited. A slight decrease in the mechanical properties was also observed after aging for 40 h. The transformation kinetics show a nucleation and growth mechanism on the specimen surface to be dominant in the low temperature aging in water environment.
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    Iron and Steel
    Repetitive Thermomechanical Processing towards Ultra Fine Grain Structure in 301, 304 and 304L Stainless Steels
    A. Momeni, S.M. Abbasi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 338-343. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Thermomechanical processing as a combination of cold rolling and annealing was performed on austenitic stainless steels 301, 304 and 304L. Two cold rolling steps each one up to a reduction of 75% were combined with an intermediate annealing at 800°C for 20 min. The final annealing was performed at the same temperature and time. Cold rolling contributed to martensite formation at the expense of metastable austenite in the studied materials. Austenite in 30l was found to be less stable than that in 304 and 304L. Hence, higher strength characteristics in the as-quenched 301 stainless steels were attributed to the higher volume fraction of martensite. Both α′-martensite and ε-martensite were found to form as induced by deformation. However, the intensity of ε-martensite increased as the stability of austenite decreased. Annealing after cold rolling led to the reversion of austenite with an ultra fine grained structure in the order of 0.5-1 μm from the strain induced martensite. The final grain size was found to be an inverse function of the amount of strain induced
    martensite. The thermomechanical processing considerably improved the strength characteristics while the simultaneous decrease of elongation was rather low.
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    Microstructure Evolution of a 10Cr Heat-Resistant Steel during High Temperature Creep
    Ping Hu, Wei Yan, Wei Sha, Wei Wang, Yiyin Shan, Ke Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 344-351. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The microstructure evolution of a 10Cr ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant steel during creep at 600°C was investigated in this work. Creep tests demonstrated that the 10Cr steel had higher creep strength than conventional ASME-P92 steel at 600°C. The microstructure after creep was studied by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. It was revealed that the martensitic laths were coarsened with time and eventually developed into subgrains after 8354 h. Laves phase was observed to grow and cluster along the prior austenite grain boundaries during creep and caused the fluctuation of solution and precipitation strengthening effects, which was responsible for the two slope changes on the creep rupture strength vs rupture time curve. It was also revealed that the microstructure evolution could be accelerated by stress, which resulted in the lower hardness in the deformed part of the creep specimen, compared with the aging part.
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    Mechanisms of Solidification Structure Improvement of Ultra Pure 17 wt% Cr Ferritic Stainless Steel by Ti, Nb Addition
    Yating Shan, Xinghong Luo, Xiaoqiang Hu, Shi Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 352-358. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The grain structures and the precipitates in the solidification microstructure of the ultra pure 17 wt% Cr ferritic stainless steels with different Ti and/or Nb micro-alloying were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. It was found by the grain structure observation that the addition of Ti or Nb to the steel
    reduced the grain size (D) and elongation factor (E), and improved the equiaxed grain proportion (P) and globularity factor (ζ). Among the four steels studied, the minimum grain size and maximum equiaxed grain proportion were obtained by jointly adding both Ti and Nb to the steel. The SEM observation indicated that several kinds of precipitations, such as TiN, MC (rich in Nb), Laves phase (Fe2Nb) and so on, formed in the corresponding steels. In addition, the results calculated using the Thermo-Calc software illustrated that TiN precipitates in the liquid at proper Ti and N contents. Meanwhile, the solidification interval (?T) was enlarged by the addition of Ti or Nb, and the effectiveness of Nb was stronger than Ti. Based on the experimental and calculation results, the mechanisms of grain refinement and increment in equiaxed grain proportion were
    discussed.
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    Characterization of Austenite Dynamic Recrystallization under Different Z Parameters in a Microalloyed Steel
    M. Shaban, B. Eghbali
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 359-363. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A low carbon Nb-Ti microalloyed steel was subjected to hot torsion testing over the temperature range 850-1100°C and strain rates 0.01-1 s-1 to study the influence of deformation conditions on the dynamic recrystallization characteristics of austenite. The results show that dynamic recrystallization occurs more easily with the decrease of strain rate and the increase of deformation temperature. The complete dynamically recrystallized grain size as a function of Zener{Hollomon parameter was established. It was found that dynamically recrystallized grain sizes decrease with increasing strain rate and decreasing deformation temperature. The effect of microalloying elements on peak strain was investigated and the solute drag corrected peak strain was determined. Also, the dynamic recrystallization map of austenite was obtained by using recrystallization critical parameters.
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    Fatigue Property of Nano-grained Delaminated Low-carbon Steel Sheet
    X. Li, T.F. Jing, M.M. Lu, R. Xu, B.Y. Liang, J.W. Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 364-368. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Tension-tension fatigue life tests on nano-grained delaminated low-carbon steel sheet under different fatigue loads are carried out to study the fatigue properties of the steel. The three-dimensional microstructures of the steel are observed by TEM. In addition, the morphology of the fatigue fracture of the specimen under different loads is observed by SEM. The results show that micro-cracks form on the weak interface of the nano-grained steel under low-stress conditions, which hinders the propagation of the main cracks and reduces the fatigue crack propagation rate, resulting in the extending fatigue life of the steel
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    Regular Papers
    Semi-hot Stamping as an Improved Process of Hot Stamping
    Malek Naderi, Mostafa Ketabchi, Mahmoud Abbasi, Wolfgang Bleck
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 369-376. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Reducing the forming load, deletion of springback, increasing the formability of sheets as well as producing high strength parts are the main reasons to apply hot stamping process. Hot stamping process and 22MnB5 steels are the state of the art process and grades, respectively; however novel processes and steel grades are under considerations. In the current research, behavior of the steel grade MSW1200 blanks under semi and fully hot stamping processes was characterized. During semi-hot stamping process, the blank was firstly heated to a temperature of about 650°C and then formed and quenched in the die assembly, simultaneously. Microstructure and mechanical properties of semi and fully hot stamped blanks were studied and the results
    were compared with those of normally water/air quenched blanks. The hot stamped blanks attained the strength values as high as water quenched blanks. The highest ductility and consequently, the best formability were achieved for the blank which had been semi-hot stamped. It was concluded that for the mentioned steel, semi-hot stamping process could be considered as an improved thermo-mechanical process which not only guaranteed a high formability, but also led to ultra high strength values.
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    Effect of Silver Content on Microstructure and Properties of Brass/steel Induction Brazing Joint Using Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn Filler Metal
    J. Cao, L.X. Zhang, H.Q. Wang, L.Z. Wu, J.C. Feng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 377-381. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The induction brazing of brass to steel using Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn filler metal was investigated in this study. The influence of Ag content on the microstructure and properties were analyzed by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Defect free joint was achieved using Ag- Cu-Zn-Sn filler metal. The microstructure of the joint was mainly composed of Ag-based solid solution and Cu-based solid solution. The increase of Ag content and the cooling rate both led to the increase of the needle like eutectic structure. The tensile strength decreased with the increase of Ag content. The tensile strength at room temperature using Ag25CuZnSn filler metal reached 445 MPa. All fractures using Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn filler metal presented ductile characteristic.
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    Room-temperature Magnetocaloric Effect in (Co0.35Mn0.65)2P Compound
    Naikun Sun, Da Li, Songning Xu, Zhenhua Wang, Zhidong Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (4): 382-384. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The (Co0.35Mn0.65)2P compound, prepared by a mechanical alloying plus solid sintering process, exhibits a second-order transition from a ferromagnetic state to a paramagnetic one at Curie temperature of about 320 K with no clear thermal hysteresis. A magnetic-entropy change (?SM) value above 1.6 J?kg-1?K-1 for a 5 T  field change is obtained in the whole temperature range of 292.5-352.5 K and the maximum value of the (?SM is 2.3 ?kg-1?K-1  at 337.5 K. The study on the magnetocaloric effect of the (Co0.35Mn0.65)2P compound may be helpful for exploring good candidates for room-temperature magnetic refrigeration.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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