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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      21 September 2010, Volume 26 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Invited Review
    Mysterious Waters at Metal Surfaces
    Jibiao Li Shenglong Zhu Fuhui Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 769-775. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (550KB)

    Molecular structures of adsorbed waters at metal surfaces are essential to understanding the widespread processes ranging from ice nucleation, to water involved catalytic surface reactions, to many phenomena of biological and astrochemical importance. Instead of providing a comprehensive literature survey, we focus in this review on detailed structural information, such as water orientations and occupation sites, of intact waters at low temperatures and ultrahigh vacuum conditions investigated by various surface techniques. Despite progresses made in direct imaging the surface waters at high resolutions, as exemplified in a close-packed (e.g. Pd(111)) and an open metal surfaces (e.g. Cu(110)) supported waters, structural mysteries remain at diverse metal surfaces. We highlight experimental challenges and discuss structural mysteries in elucidating surface
    water structures at molecular levels.

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    Novel Processing and Characterization Methods
    Atom Probe and Mossbauer Spectroscopy Investigations of Cementite Dissolution in a Cold Drawn Eutectoid Steel
    Na Min Wei Li Hongyan Li Xuejun Jin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 776-782. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1325KB)

    Mossbauer spectrum and three dimensional atom probes (3DAP) were combined to investigate the mechanism of cementite dissolution in a cold-drawn eutectoid steel at a true strain of 2.89. The experimental results suggest that the dislocations play an important role in the dissolution of the cementite by sweeping across the nano-scaled cementite, and transferring carbon from cementite to ferrite inducing cementite decomposition. The mechanism of cementite dissolution in the steel is discussed in association with the investigation of nonstoichiometric cementite structure after heavy deformation.

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    Synthesis and Characterization of Fe50Cr14Mo14C14B6Gd2 Bulk Amorphous Steel
    M. Iqbal J.I. Akhter H.F. Zhang Z.Q. Hu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 783-786. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (384KB)

    Bulk amorphous steel having 7 mm thickness was synthesized to evaluate its thermal stability and mechanical properties. The steel was synthesized by Cu mold casting technique using 1-2N pure metals. Characterization of the material was done by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy.
    The activation energies were calculated by Kissinger equation and it was found that the steel had better stability against crystallization. Mechanical properties like Vicker0s hardness, nanohardness, elastic modulus and elastic recovery of as-cast and annealed samples were measured. It was concluded that the present steel had good glass-forming ability (GFA) and mechanical properties.

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    Mechanical and Functional Properties of Materials
    Microwave Absorbing Properties of Magnesium-substituted MnZn Ferrites Prepared by Citrate-EDTA Complexing Method
    Jie Song, Lixi Wang, Naicen Xu, Qitu Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 787-792. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (551KB)

    Magnesium-substituted MnZn ferrites with composition of Mn0:4Zn0:6MgxFe(2-x)O4 (x=0.00, 0.05) were prepared by citrate-EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) complexing method. The crystal structure, surface morphology and electromagnetic properties of the calcined samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and network analyzer (Agilent 8722ET). All the XRD patterns showed the single phase of the spinel-type MnZn ferrite without other intermediate phase. The lattice parameter and average particle size increased with the substitution of magnesium. The microwave electromagnetic properties of the samples have been studied at the frequency range from 2 to 18 GHz. It was shown that the values of ε' and ε' ' decreased slightly with the substitution of magnesium. The values of  μ' and  μ'' were improved significantly, and the peak of μ'' shifted to low frequency with Mg2+ ions substituting. Furthermore, the reasons have also been discussed by using electromagnetic theory. The reflection loss (RL) ascended after magnesium was substituted. Magnesium-substituted ferrite had excellent microwave absorption properties. The frequency (with respect to -10 dB) started from 11.3 GHz, and the bandwidth reached about 3.5 GHz. The peak value of RL was about -19 dB at a matching thickness of 3.1 mm.

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    Effect of Phosphorus Grain Boundaries Segregation and Precipitations on Mechanical Properties for Ti-IF Steel after Recrystallization Annealing
    Xinli Song Zexi Yuan Juan Jia Di Wang Pinghe Li Zhaojun Deng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 793-797. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (582KB)

    The cold-rolled (75% reduction ratio) Ti-IF (interstitial-free) steels of 1 mm thickness were recrystallized by annealing at 810°C for different times. The microstructure, mechanical properties and phosphorus segregation at grain boundary were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM), tensile testing and field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM). It was observed that recrystallization was completed after annealing at 810°C for 180 s. The yield strength and tensile strength decreased as annealing time increased. The FE-TEM observation showed that after the annealing treatment, the grain boundary was broadened and the dislocations with higher density of phosphorus atoms and phosphide at grain boundaries became evident. The amount of phosphorus segregated at grain boundaries increased with annealing time.

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    Effect of Preheating Temperature on Surface Cracking of High Nitrogen CrMn Austenitic Stainless Steel
    Zhenhua Wang Wantang Fu Shuhua Sun Zhiqing Lv Wenhui Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 798-802. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (698KB)

    18Mn18Cr0.5N steel specimens were preheated at the temperatures from 1100 to 1250°C for 5 min, and then cooled to 950°C and compressed. The cracking behaviors were investigated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the hot workability of 18Mn18Cr0.5N steel gradually decreased with increasing preheating temperature between 1100 and 1200°C, and quickly deteriorated up to 1250°C. Above 1200°C, delta ferrite particles appeared in 18Mn18Cr0.5N steel, promoted cavity coalescence on grain boundary, and accelerated surface crack formation during the hot working process.

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    Effect of Ti-enriched Carbonitride on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of X80 Pipeline Steel
    Wei Deng, Xiuhua Gao, Dewen Zhao, Linxiu Du, Di Wu, Guodong Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 803-809. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (973KB)

    In this study, two API X80 pipeline steels were fabricated by varying Ti additions, and their microstructures and fracture characteristics were analyzed to investigate the effects of Ti-enriched carbonitride on the tensile properties and Charpy impact properties. Lathy bainite, a mass of matensite/austenite (M/A), coarse cubic Ti-enriched inclusions, chain-typed Ti-enriched precipitations, weak toughness and high tensile strength were found as consequences of higher amount of Ti content. Those large scale and chain-typed Ti-enriched carbonitrides are one kind of crack sources during fracture. The negative e®ect of higher amount of Ti on the impact properties is increased with decreased temperature.

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    Effect of Aging on the Toughness of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steel Weldments
    Omyma Hassan Ibrahim Ibrahim Soliman Ibrahim Tarek Ahmed Fouad Khalifa
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 810-816. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1996KB)

    In the present study, the effect of aging heat treatment at 650, 750, and 850°C on the impact toughness of 316L austenitic stainless steel, 2205 duplex stainless steel and their weldments has been investigated. Welding process was conducted using the TIG (tungsten inert gas) welding technique. Instrumented impact testing, at room temperature, was employed to determine the effect of aging treatment on the impact properties of investigated materials. Aging treatment resulted in degradation in the impact toughness as demonstrated by the reduction in the impact fracture energy and deformation parameters (strain hardening capacity, fracture deflection, and crack initiation and propagation energy). The degree of embrittlement was more noticeable in duplex stainless steel parent and weld-metal than in 316L stainless steel and became greater with the
    increase of aging temperature. The degradation in impact toughness was discussed in relation to the observed precipitation of the intermetallic sigma phase in the microstructure of the stainless steel weldments and the corresponding fracture surface morphology.

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    Regular Papers
    Transformation Behavior of Precipitates in a W-alloyed 10 wt pct Cr Steel for Ultra-supercritical Power Plants
    Xiaoqiang Hu Namin Xiao Xinghong Luo Dianzhong Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 817-822. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (604KB)

    Thermodynamic calculation, thermal analysis, and identification and observation of precipitates have been carried out on a W-alloyed 10 wt pct Cr steel by means of ThermoCalc program, differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, respectively. Several critical phase transformation points were determined by combining experimental results with calculations. Two individually stable phases of Nb(C, N) and VN, instead of one single phase MX (X: C, N), M23C6 or Laves phases, were predicted in the calculated equilibrium phase diagram. An unstable elongated M7C3 with relatively higher Cr was detected unexpectedly in the normalized and tempered steel. Two kinds of spherical Nb(C, N) with different size were recognized as the primary and the secondary precipitates of Nb(C, N) which contain different V contents. It was observed that one kind of complex precipitate in a special V-wing shape was resulted from two plate-like VN adhering to coarse primary spherical Nb(C, N).

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    Anomalous Phase Transformation from Martensite to Austenite in Fe-13%Cr-4%Ni-Mo Martensitic Stainless Steel
    Yuanyuan Song Xiuyan Liy Lijian Rong Yiyi Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 823-826. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (315KB)

    The thermal stability of the reversed austenite in a low carbon Fe-13%Cr-4%Ni-Mo (in wt pct) martensitic stainless steel was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Different amount of the reversed austenite was obtained by controlling tempered temperature. It was found that the amount of the reversed austenite increased after keeping the specimens at liquid nitrogen temperature for 72 h. The mechanism of the anomalous phase transformation from martensite to austenite was discussed.

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    High-temperature Oxidation Behavior of Zircaloy-4 and Zirlo in Steam Ambient
    Hyung Hoon Kim Jun Ho Kim Jin Young Moon Ho Seong Lee Jeong Joo Kim Young Suck Chai
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 827-832. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (965KB)

    The oxidation characteristics for Zircaloy-4 and Zirlo in the temperature range of 700−1200°C under steam supply condition were investigated by using a modified thermo-gravimetric analyzer. The specimens were oxidized for 3600 s at each temperature and then quenched in a furnace. The oxidation rate constants were measured from the weight gains to evaluate the oxidation behavior in Zircaloy-4 and Zirlo. The weight gain rates of Zirlo were lower than those of Zircaloy-4, leading to the low rate constants. The different oxidation behaviors between both cladding materials were considered to be due to the difference in their chemical compositions.

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    Corrosion Behaviors of Two Types of Commercial Stainless Steel after Plastic Deformation
    Esmaeil Jafari
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 833-838. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1142KB)

    The influence of deformation temperature, strain rate and alloying elements such as chromium, nickel, copper, on corrosion resistance of a 304 stainless steel after plastic deformation was investigated. The techniques employed were tensile test at room and elevated temperature, deep drawing tests at various strain rates, X-ray diffraction test and potentiodynamic and cyclic polarization, metallography by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that chromium, nickel and copper had a significant effect on corrosion resistance of steel after plastic deformation. It was observed that corrosion resistance after plastic deformation was a function of deformation temperature and alloying elements.

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    Effect of Free-cutting Additives on Machining Characteristics of Austenitic Stainless Steels
    Zhuang Li Di Wu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 839-844. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (740KB)

    The machinability tests were conducted by using a YD-21 dynamometer on a CA6161A lathe. The experiments were conducted to determine the effect of free-cutting additives on machining characteristics of austenitic stainless steels. The conventional austenitic stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti (steel A) and the free cutting austenitic stainless steel (steel B) were prepared. The results have shown that machinable inclusions were composed of MnS and CuO, and they might be also Ti4C2S2. The presence of Bi in the inclusion was detected by the atom map and electro-probe microanalysis (EPMA), which might be one of the most important factors to improve the machinability of austenitic stainless steels. The cutting forces for steel B were lower than those of steel A at various cutting speeds; the abrasion depth of theflank of the tool for steel B was less than that of the steel A under the same cutting conditions. The machinability of austenitic stainless steel was visibly improved by adding free-cutting additives, such as S, Cu and Bi. Ultimate tensile, yield strength, and total elongation values of the free cutting austenitic stainless steel were improved due to the addition of these free-cutting additives.

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    Carbonates as Foaming Agent in Chip-based Aluminium Foam Precursor
    Marco Haesche Dirk Lehmhus Jorg Weise Manfred Wichmann Irene Cristina
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 845-850. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (759KB)

    Replacement of TiH2 as foaming agent by CaCO3 (lime) and CaMg(CO3)2 (dolomite) for AlMg4.5- and AlSi9Cu3-foams was investigated considering influences on foaming capability and cellular structure. Precursor materials were produced from alloy chip and powder mixtures by means of the thixocasting process. AlSi9Cu3 variants showed expansion levels sufficient for commercial use. Variations in expansion observed when CaCO3 and CaMg(CO3)2 were compared as foaming agent are explained based on the course of decomposition. Improved performance of dolomite-based foams relies on formation of stabilizing MgO phases, which do not develop during decomposition of CaCO3 in Al-Si-Cu alloys

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    Effect of Hot Working on Secondary Phase Formation in 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel
    A. Momeni K. Dehghani
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 851-857. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1140KB)
    In this research, aging treatments at temperatures of 800 and 900°C for different aging time of 5{60 min were conducted on solution treated as well as hot worked samples of 2205 dual phase stainless steel. The effect of aging treatment on precipitation of intermetallic phases was investigated in undeformed specimens and those subjected to hot deformation with different strain rates of 0.001−1 s−1. It was found that σ precipitation increased by hot working. It was also concluded that the volume fraction of phase increased with deformation temperature and decreased with strain rate. The precipitation of intermetallic phases (i.e. σ and χ) was analyzed by an Avrami-type kinetics equation of %(σ+χ)=A(1-exp(-ktn)) and the values of n and ln k were estimated for different thermomechanical regimes. The values of n were assessed to increase from 0.4 to 1 with strain rate in the studied range. Otherwise, It was also understood that ln k decreased with strain rate. Microstructural observations by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that σ particles mostly nucleated at the ferrite-austenite interfaces. But no sign of Â-phase could be seen. This fortified the idea of certain literature that Â-phase always forms at early stages of aging and consumes through the precipitation of σ.
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    A Hybrid Joining Technology for Aluminum/Zinc Coated Steels in Vehicles
    C.Y. Choi D.C. Kim D.G. Nam Y.D. Kim Y.D. Park
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (9): 858-864. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1091KB)

    Currently, in the automotive industry, joining of the aluminum alloys with the steel is a crucial problem to be solved. Conventional joining techniques including resistance spot and gas metal arc welding are not acceptable for those applications due to a number of metallurgical problems. The investigation was carried out to develop the hybrid joining process combining the resistance spot welding and brazing. In this study, an attempt was made to apply hybrid process to the joining of dissimilar sheet metals, Al-Mg-Si (6000 series) alloy and low carbon steel sheet. Hybrid process (resistance spot weld/brazing) using filler metal was found to be effective to overcome the incompatibility between aluminum alloy and steel. Although hybrid joining process of Al alloy sheet and steel sheet did not produce acceptable bond strength, it was proved to have reasonable interfacial
    bond layer if the optimal process condition was applied.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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