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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      31 January 2010, Volume 26 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Invited Review
    Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Nanocrystalline Materials---a Review
    Li Liu Ying Li Fuhui Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 1-14. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2171KB)

    Nanocrystallization significantly influences the electrochemical corrosion behaviors of metals/alloys in liquid system. In active dissolution, nanocrystallization accelerates the corrosion reactions. If the corrosion products are dissoluble, the corrosion rate is increased by nanocrystallization; if the corrosion products are insoluble, the
    corrosion rate is decreased on the contrary because the corrosion products act as a block layer to delay the dissolution. In passivation, nanocrystallization changes the composition of the passive film, and results into different morphology and growth process of the passive film, both of which improves the formation of compact film and influences the semiconductor property. It influences the passivation depending on fast element diffusion and special adsorbed ability. The small grain size improves the element diffusion, which leads to the different composition of passive film (passive elements enrichment such as Cr, Ti). The small grain size also changes the surface condition, which influences the ions adsorption. All increase the corrosion resistance of materials. In local corrosion, nanocrystallization increases the unstable points
    on the surface of the materials, which increases the possibility of local corrosion. However, the excellent ability of element diffusion helps heal the local corrosion points, which inhibits the growth of the local corrosion.

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    Nanomaterialsand Nanotechnology
    Synthesis of GaPO4-GaN Coaxial Nanowires
    Lutang Fu Zhigang Chen Hongtao Cong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 15-19. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (683KB)

    GaPO4-GaN coaxial nanowires were synthesized by two-step chemical vapor deposition method using H2 and NH3 as reactant gas in turn at 950°C. The morphology and microstructures of the GaPO4-GaN coaxial nanowires were studied by scanning elctron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission lectron microscopy (TEM). The nanowires have an average diameter of ~15 nm and length of hundreds of anometers. The core is GaPO4 crystal and the outer shell is GaN crystal. The formation  mechanism was iscussed and the key factors controlling the growth are temperature and the concentration of reactant gases. hese coaxial nanowires may have potential application for piezoluminescence nano-devices, and the two-step ynthetic technique could be used to grow rationally other 1D GaN-based nanowire heterostructures.

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    Preparation of Large Area Double-walled Carbon Nanotube Macro-films with Self-cleaning Properties
    Ziping Wu Qianfeng Xu Jiannong Wang Jie Ma
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 20-26. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (640KB)

    Double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) macro-films with large areas, excellent flexibility and superhy-drophobicity are reported. The area of the macro-film is larger than 30 cm×15 cm, and this large film can be bended, or folded without any damage, and even can be tailored freely. After a simple modification of perfluoroalkysilane, the surface of the macro-film shows excellent superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 165.7±2 deg. and sliding angle lower than 3 deg., the prepared superhydrophobic films showing excellent antifouling, self-cleaning and water-repellent functions. The topographic roughness and per°uoroalkysilane modification are found to contribute to the observed superhydrophobicity. Considering the outstanding electronic, chemical and mechanical properties of DWCNTs, it is expected that this multifunctional DWCNT macro-film has potential applications in many fields.

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    Effect of Titanium, Antimony, Cerium and Carbon Nanotubes on the Morphology and Microhardness of Mg-based Icosahedral Quasicrystal Phase
    Zhifeng Wang Weimin Zhao Haipeng Li Jian Ding Yongyan Li Chunyong Liang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 27-32. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (824KB)

    For the first time, petal-like and spherical Mg-based icosahedral quasicrystal phase (I-phase) were obtained by introducing Ti, Sb, Ce and C nanotubes into Mg-Zn-Y alloy under normal casting conditions. The formation mechanism and stability criterion of spherical I-phase were discussed. The morphology and microhardness of I-phase and their determinants were studied in this paper. The results show that the different value of microhardness of I-phase could be attributed to the different kinds of the fourth component and its content, and its different innate characters. The final morphology of icosahedral quasicrystalline (IQC) is decided by the size of critical stable radius Rr, the content of the fourth component and degree of undercooling.

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    Formation and Annealing of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 Nanoparticles in KOH Solution
    Tomoki Tsumura Keiichi Matsuoka Masahiro Toyoda
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 33-38. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1002KB)

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) and strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles were synthesized separately through hydrothermal reaction of crystalline TiO2 particles and corresponding alkaline earth hydroxides, Ba(OH)2 and Sr(OH)2 respectively, in 50 mol·dm-3 KOH solution at 150°C. Each structural evolution of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3
    during the hydrothermal treatment was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM) and thermogravimetry- differential analysis (TG-DTA). In the BaTiO3 system, round particles with cubic perovskite-type structure were obtained within 1 h. However, these particles were gradually dissolved and then were re-precipitated in the form of cube-shape BaTiO3 particles with a smaller lattice constant ac than that of the former phase. After the BaTiO3 particles formed firstly have disappeared completely, or the two phases coexistence stage with different lattice constant ac passed, lattice constant ac of BaTiO3 phase re-precipitated continuously decreased with annealing time. In contrast, once SrTiO3 particles are formed, the lattice constant ac decreased continuously throughout the reaction. The result indicates that SrTiO3 particles were annealed without dissolution and precipitation process under the present condition.

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    Sea Cucumber-like Polyaniline Nanofibers Synthesized by Aqueous Solution Method
    Baoyun Liu Li Liu Nanlin Shi Jun Gong Chao Sun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 39-44. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (765KB)

    The preparation of polyaniline nanofibers in aqueous solution was studied as functions of the concentrations and ratios of reactants. The morphology and microstructure of polyaniline nanofibers are affected by the concentrations and proportions of the reactants. A special kind of sea cucumber-like polyaniline nanofibers can be prepared under control of reaction conditions. Secondary growth is the formation mechanism. In addition, the bulk electrical conductivity of these sea cucumber-like polyaniline nanofibers was higher than that of other common polyaniline nanofibers.

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    A Facile Synthesis of Cerium Phosphate Nanofiber by Solution-solid Method
    Mingyun Guan Jianhua Sun Tongming Shang Quanfa Zhou Jianting Han Aiqin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 45-48. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (566KB)

    A solution-solid method is developed to construct cerium phosphate (CePO4) nanofibers. Tetraphosphoric acid formed the condensed linear polyphosphate (PnO3n+1)(n+2)-before reacting with cerium carbonate (Ce2(CO3)3) powder, which was favourable for one dimensional CePO4 nanofibers forming. The growth mechanism was proposed based on solution-solid process. CePO4 nanofibers display strong UV luminescence emission and weak blue emission.

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    Interface Structure of Ag/SnO2 Nanocomposite Fabricated by Reactive Synthesis
    Jingchao Chen, Jing Feng, B. Xiao, K.H. Zhang, Y.P. Du, Z.J. Hong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 49-55. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (975KB)

    The electric contact material of Ag/SnO2 composite was achieved by reactive synthesis method. The com-positions and microstructure of Ag/SnO2 composite were analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM). The structural feature was typical of the particle reinforced composites. The HRTEM images revealed that the observed Ag/SnO2 interface was absence of the precipitated phase and the lattice contrast across the interface was clear and sharp. The average particle size of SnO2 in composite was near 50 nm and it was well dispersed in spherical shape. The thermodynamic mechanism of reactive synthesis method was also discussed. The electronic density distribution analysis of the interface showed the charges of Ag atoms transmitted to O
    atoms and the conductivity of the material was also affected. No extra compounds expected such as AgxOy formed at interface. The distribution of electrons was of inequality near the interface which explained why the mechanical property of the metal/ceramic materials was improved but the machining property declined.

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    An Examination on Atomic-level Stress Calculations by Nanoindentation Simulation via the Quasicontinuum Method
    Yufei Shao Shaoqing Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 56-64. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (872KB)

    Nanoindentation simulations on single crystals Al and Cu via the quasicontinuum method have been performed. Two kinds of atomic-level local stress calculation methods, i.e. the coarse-grained local stress and the virial local stress, are employed to calculate the stress state of the contact area. Various comparisons between the coarse-grained local stress and the virial local stress have been made. Firstly, the averaged normal stress beneath the contact surface calculated by coarse-grained method agrees well with continuum mechanical pressure measurement, while the virial method gives unphysical results sometimes. Secondly, the coarsegrained results reflect the indenter size effect on the critical shear stress quite accurately, while the virial calculations fail. Thirdly, the distribution of maximum shear stress of the coarse-grained method predicts the
    defects nucleation locations reliably, while the distribution of virial local stress gives an incorrect prediction sometimes. Thus it is concluded that the coarse-grained method can offer a more reliable description of the local stress states of atoms in spatially inhomogeneous solids.

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    Mechanical Properties of the TaSi2 Fibers by Nanoindentation
    Chunjuan Cui Jun Zhang Lin Liu Hengzhi Fu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 65-68. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (593KB)

    The Si-TaSi2 eutectic in situ composite, which has highly-aligned and uniformly-distributed TaSi2 fibers in the Si matrix, can be obtained when the solidification rate changes from 0.3 to 9.0 mm/min. It is very interesting that one or two TaSi2 fibers are curved when the solidification rate reaches 6.0 mm/min, although it is very brittle in general. The formation mechanism of the curved fiber is discussed and mechanical properties of the TaSi2 fibers are examined by nanoindentation. It is found that the hardness and the elastic modulus of the bended TaSi2 fiber are much higher than that of the straight TaSi2 fiber. Moreover, the reasons why the mechanical properties of the straight TaSi2 fiber are different from that of the curved TaSi2 fiber are discussed. This can be ascribed to internal stress which results from mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients of the two phases and di®erent crystallographic orientations.

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    Nanocrystal Model for Liquid Metals and Amorphous Metals
    X.L. Tian C.W. Zhan J.X. Hou X.C. Chen J.J. Sun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 69-74. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (394KB)

    A nanocrystal model for liquid metals and amorphous metals has been developed. With the nanocrystal model, the broadening peak profiles (BPPs) of Cu, Al, Al65Cu20Fe15 alloy, Cu70Ni30 alloy and Fe50Si50 alloy were gained by broadening the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks of a crystal lattice. By comparing the BPPs with the XRD intensity curves measured on the liquid metals, it is found that the BPPs are closely in agreement with the XRD intensity curves, respectively, except the Fe50Si50 alloy. Therefore, the nanocrystal model can be used to determine if the atomic cluster structure of the liquid metal is similar to the structure of its crystal lattice.

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    Thin Film and Coatings
    Fire and Corrosion Resistances of Intumescent Nano-coating Containing Nano-SiO2 in Salt Spray Condition
    Zhenyu Wang Enhou Han Fuchun Liu Wei Ke
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 75-81. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (948KB)

    The nano-concentrates and fiame retardant nano-coating were prepared in thhis study. The effect of nano-SiO2 on the corrosion resistance and fire resistance of ammonium polyphosphate-pentaerythritol-melamine (APP-PER-MEL) coating was investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscopy
    (SEM), effective thermal conductivity (λ/d), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fire protection test. The chemical action and endothermic effect of ammonium polyphosphate, pentaerythritol and melamine in traditional flame retardant coating were damaged by salt spray condition, whereas the flame-retardant additives in the nano-coating demonstrated the good chemical interaction in salt spray condition. The uniformly dispersed nano-SiO2 particles could improve corrosion resistance of the coating, and hence nano-coating could remain the good fire-resistant properties even after 500 h salt spray test.

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    Effect of Electroplating Parameters on Microstructure of Nanocrystalline Nickel Coatings
    A.M. Rashidi A. Amadeh
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 82-86. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (647KB)

    In order to achieve the optimum conditions for electroplating nanocrystalline nickel coating from Watts-type bath, the effect of some process parameters namely, bath temperature, current density, and saccharin addition on grain size and texture coefficient (TC= I(200) /I(111) ) of the deposits were investigated by X-ray diffraction
    (XRD). The results showed that in a bath containing 5 g/L saccharin, by increasing the bath temperature from 45°C to 55°C, the grain size decreased, whereas further increase of bath temperature resulted in a contrary effect. By increasing the current density from 10 to 75 mA/cm2, both the grain size and TC decreased, while further increase in current density had no significant effect on the grain size. At a given current density, the grain size and TC decreased rapidly by increasing the saccharin content before leveling off at 3 g/L of saccharin. Finally, based on the grain refining the optimum conditions for producing nanocrystalline nickel coating from Watts-type bath have been proposed.

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    Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystalline Tungsten Thin Films
    H.L. Sun Z.X. Song D.G. Guo F. Ma K.W. Xu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 87-92. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (843KB)

    Tungsten (W) thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering onto Si (100) substrates. Their microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hardness and modulus were evaluated by nanoindentation. It is found that a 30 nm Cr sticking layer induces structure changes of deposited W film from β-W to α-W structure. In addition, remarkable hardness enhancement both for the deposited and annealed W films, were compared with that of bulk coarse-grained W, although their nanoindentation modulus is very close to that of corresponding bulk W. The intrinsic reasons that lead to structure changes and super hardness are discussed.

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    Properties of Gallium Phosphide Thick Films Prepared on Zinc Sul-de Substrates by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering
    Yangping Li Zhengtang Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (1): 93-96. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (587KB)

    Radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was employed to prepare gallium phosphide (GaP) thick films on zinc sulfide (ZnS) substrates by sputtering a single crystalline GaP target in an Ar atmosphere. The infrared (IR) transmission properties, structure, morphology, composition and hardness of the film were studied. Results show that both amorphous and zinc-blende crystalline phases existed in the GaP film in almost stoichiometric amounts. The GaP film exhibited good IR transmission properties, though the relatively rough surface and loose microstructure caused a small loss of IR transmission due to scattering. The GaP film also showed a much higher hardness than the ZnS substrate, thereby providing good protection to ZnS.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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