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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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  Current Issue
      10 June 2018, Volume 34 Issue 6 Previous Issue   
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    Orginal Article
    Ternary non-noble metal zinc-nickel-cobalt carbonate hydroxide cocatalysts toward highly efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting
    Cao Fengren, Tian Wei, Li Liang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 899-904.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.054
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2065KB) ( 269 )

    TiO2 photoanodes have aroused intensive research interest in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. However, they still suffer from poor electron-hole separation and sluggish oxygen evolution dynamics, leading to the low photoconversion efficiency and limiting commercial application. Here, we designed and fabricated novel ternary non-noble metal carbonate hydroxide (ZNC-CH) nanosheet cocatalysts and integrated them with TiO2 nanorod arrays as highly efficient photoanodes of PEC cells. Compared with the pristine TiO2, the photocurrent of photoanode with the optimal amount of ZNC-CH represents 3.2 times enhancement, and the onset potential is shifted toward the negative potential direction of 62 mV. The remarkable enhancement is attributed to the suppressed carrier recombination and enhanced charge transfer efficiency at the interface of TiO2, ZNC-CH and electrolyte, which is closely related to the zinc elements modulated intrinsic activity of catalysts. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of multimetallic ZNC-CH cocatalysts onto photoanodes is a promising strategy to improve the PEC efficiency.

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    Plasmonic-enhanced electrochemical detection of volatile biomarkers with gold functionalized TiO2 nanotube arrays
    Bhattacharyya Dhiman, Kumar Pankaj, R. Smith York, K. Mohanty Swomitra, Misra Mano
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 905-913.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.010
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2690KB) ( 58 )

    Titania nanotubular arrays (TNA) synthesized via electrochemical anodization is a stable and versatile material, widely studied for photocatalytic and sensing applications, whereas nano-sized gold particles are a known plasmonic material. Semiconductor-metal nanocomposites in isolated, embedded, or encapsulated form, when irradiated with proper light frequency can exhibit localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect. This effect can result in improved light adsorption and electrical properties of a material. In this study, we report the enhanced visible light photo-response of LSPR induced volatile organic biomarker vapor sensing at room temperature using a Au-embedded TNA electrochemical sensor. Two mechanisms are proposed. One based on classical physics (band theory), which explains operation under non-irradiated conditions. The second mechanism is based on the coupling of classical and quantum physics (molecular orbitals), and explains sensor operation under irradiated conditions.

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    Recent progress in molten salt synthesis of low-dimensional perovskite oxide nanostructures, structural characterization, properties, and functional applications: A review
    Xue Piaojie, Wu Heng, Lu Yao, Zhu Xinhua
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 914-930.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.10.005
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (5837KB) ( 32 )

    Molten salt synthesis (MSS) method has advantages of the simplicity in the process equipment, versatile and large-scale synthesis, and friendly environment, which provides an excellent approach to synthesize high pure oxide powders with controllable compositions and morphologies. Among these oxides, perovskite oxides with a composition of ABO3 exhibit a broad spectrum of physical properties and functions (e.g. ferroelectric, piezoelectric, magnetic, photovoltaic and photocatalytic properties). The downscaling of the spatial geometry of perovskite oxides into nanometers result in novel properties that are different from the bulk and film counterparts. Recent interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology has led to great efforts focusing on the synthesis of low-dimensional perovskite oxide nanostructures (PONs) to better understand their novel physical properties at nanoscale. Therefore, the low-dimensional PONs such as perovskite nanoparticles, nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes, nanofibers, nanobelts, and two dimensional oxide nanostructures, play an important role in developing the next generation of oxide electronics. In the past few years, much effort has been made on the synthesis of PONs by MSS method and their structural characterizations. The functional applications of PONs are also explored in the fields of storage memory, energy harvesting, and solar energy conversion. This review summarizes the recent progress in the synthesis of low-dimensional PONs by MSS method and its modified ways. Their structural characterization and physical properties are also scrutinized. The potential applications of low-dimensional PONs in different fields such as data memory and storage, energy harvesting, solar energy conversion, are highlighted. Perspectives concerning the future research trends and challenges of low-dimensional PONs are also outlined.

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    Defects and interface states related photocatalytic properties in reduced and subsequently nitridized Fe3O4/TiO2
    Liu Chang, Zhu Xiang, Wang Peng, Zhao Yisen, Ma Yongqing
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 931-941.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.09.019
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (4588KB) ( 35 )

    The Fe3O4@TiO2 catalyst was reduced in a mixed H2/N2 atmosphere at temperatures of 400, 600, 800 and 1000 °C in order to produce the oxygen vacancies (Ov) and Ti3+; Simultaneously, Fe3O4 was reduced to Fe, a strongly magnetic material, beneficial for the magnetic separation after the photo-degradation. The optimal catalyst was obtained at the reducing temperature of 800 °C, which possesses the good photocatalytic performance and recycled activities; Moreover, its saturation magnetization Ms is highest, reaching 23.8 emu g-1 which improves the magnetic separability. This optimal catalyst was subsequently treated in the NH3 atmosphere at temperatures of 500, 600 and 700 °C, aiming to investigate the effects of N-doping in TiO2. The 600 °C treated catalyst exhibited the optimal photocatalytic performance. The factors that affect the photocatalytic performance are revealed and discussed in detail, including the ratio of Ov and N dopant in TiO2 as well as the interface states between TiO2 and the magnetic particles.

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    Tunable emission properties of core-shell ZnCuInS-ZnS quantum dots with enhanced fluorescence intensity
    Jia Yihe, Wang Haicheng, Xiang Long, Liu Xiaoguang, Wei Wei, Ma Ning, Sun Dongbai
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 942-948.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.07.014
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2725KB) ( 23 )

    Cadmium-free I-III-VI quantum dots (QDs), represented by Cu-In-S (CIS), are widely investigated for their non-toxicity and tunable emission properties. In this work, Zn-Cu-In-S (ZCIS) alloyed QDs were synthesized via a solvothermal approach by heating up a mixture of the corresponding metal precursors and sulphur powder with dodecanethiol in oleylamine media, and the fluorescent intensity was greatly enhanced by coating ZnS (ZS) shell. By changing the ratio of Cu, the as prepared ZCIS-ZS QDs showed composition-tunable photoluminescent (PL) emission over the visible spectral window from about 500 nm to 620 nm, which is much wider than that of CIS QDs. Moreover, the influence of excitation wavelength, reaction temperature and time on the optical properties of the ZCIS-ZS QDs was also studied. This research provides a feasible and simple approach to prepare ZCIS-ZS QDs with large tunable spectral range on visible region, which could greatly contribute to the development of potential applications due to their non-toxicity and excellent optical properties.

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    Synthesis and photoluminescence of Ca1-xTiO3:xEu3+ nanoparticles
    Zhou Shang, Wang Hua, Zhong Li, Zhao Junqian, Li Liang, Li Guanghai
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 949-954.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.06.021
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2765KB) ( 32 )

    Ca1-xTiO3:xEu3+ nanoparticles (NPs) with the size ranging from 27 nm to 135 nm were prepared by means of a chemical co-precipitation method. The structural and optical properties of the NPs were investigated, and the influence of Eu doping content and sintering temperature on the photoluminescence of the Ca1-xTiO3:xEu3+ NPs were examined. An obvious red emission band centered at 615 nm were observed under the excitation with 395 nm for the Ca1-xTiO3:xEu3+ NPs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses suggest that Eu3+ is incorporated into not only the Ca-site, but also Ti-site of CaTiO3 crystal lattice. Our study shows the promise of the Ca1-xTiO3:xEu3+ NPs as a red nanophosphor.

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    Facile fabrication of three-dimensional interconnected nanoporous N-TiO2 for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting
    Chen Yingzhi, Li Aoxiang, Li Qun, Hou Xinmei, Wang Lu-Ning, Huang Zheng-Hong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 955-960.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.07.010
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1886KB) ( 21 )

    Three-dimensional (3D) interconnected porous architectures are expected to perform well in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to their high specific surface area as well as favourable porous properties and interconnections. In this work, we demonstrated the facile fabrication of 3D interconnected nanoporous N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2 network) by annealing the anodized 3D interconnected nanoporous TiO2 (TiO2 network) in ammonia atmosphere. The obtained N-TiO2 network exhibited broadened light absorption, and abundant, interconnected pores for improving charge separation, which was supported by the reduced charge transfer resistance. With these merits, a remarkably high photocurrent density at 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) was realized for the N-TiO2 network without any co-catalysts or sacrificial reagents, and the photostability can be assured after long term illumination. In view of its simplicity and efficiency, this structure promises for perspective PEC applications.

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    Palladium nanoparticles supported on amine-functionalized glass fiber mat for fixed-bed reactors on the effective removal of hexavalent chromium by catalytic reduction
    Gao Yu, Sun Wuzhu, Yang Weiyi, Li Qi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 961-968.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.05.013
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2829KB) ( 23 )

    Palladium nanoparticles were deposited on the amine-grafted glass fiber mat (GFM-NH2) catalyst support by a conventional impregnation process followed by the borohydride reduction in aqueous solution at room temperature to create the designed Pd/GFM-NH2 catalyst. By the use of large size glass fiber mat without nano/mesopores as the catalyst support, the internal mass transfer limitations due to the existence of nano/mesopores on the catalyst support were eliminated and the Pd/GFM-NH2 catalyst could be easily separated from treated water due to the large size of the catalyst support. Batch experiments demonstrate its good catalytic reduction performance of Cr(VI) with formic acid as the reducing agent. It also demonstrated an efficient Cr(VI) removal and stability in a lab-prepared, packed fixed-bed tube reactor for the continuous treatment of Cr(VI)-containing water. Thus, it has a good potential for the catalytic reduction of Cr(VI) in the water treatment practice.

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    TiO2-based photocatalysts prepared by oxidation of TiN nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activities under visible light illumination
    Li Chao, Yang Weiyi, Li Qi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 969-975.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.06.010
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2895KB) ( 27 )

    To develop TiO2-based photocatalysts with visible light activity for better solar energy utilization, a simple flash oxidation method was developed by calcining commercial TiN nanoparticle to prepare N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst and TiN/TiO2 composite photocatalysts through the modulation of the calcination time and temperature. It was found that more energy and processing time were needed to prepare N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst than that of TiN/TiO2 composite photocatalyst during this process, while TiN/TiO2 composite photocatalyst had a better visible light absorption/photocatalytic performance than that of N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst prepared from the oxidation of the same TiN precursor. Thus, the preparation of TiN/TiO2 composite photocatalyst from TiN precursor should be a more preferred approach than the preparation of N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst for visible-light-activated photocatalysis for its cost-effectiveness.

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    Electrodes based on nano-tree-like vanadium nitride and carbon nanotubes for micro-supercapacitors
    Ouldhamadouche Nadir, Achour Amine, Lucio-Porto Raul, Islam Mohammad, Solaymani Shahram, Arman Ali, Ahmadpourian Azin, Achour Hamed, Le Brizoual Laurent, Abdou Djouadi Mohamed, Brousse Thierry
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 976-982.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.048
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2447KB) ( 25 )

    Vanadium nitride (VN) was deposited by DC-sputtering on a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNTs) template for the purpose of nano-structuration. This led to the fabrication of hierarchically composite electrodes consisting of porous and nanostructured VN grown on vertically aligned CNTs in a nano-tree-like configuration for micro-supercapacitor application. The electrodes show excellent performance with an areal capacitance as high as 37.5 mF cm-2 at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 in a 0.5 M K2SO4 mild electrolyte solution. Furthermore, the capacitance decay was only 15% after 20,000 consecutive cycles. Moreover, the capacitance was found to increase with VN deposit thickness. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of the electrodes before and after cycling suggest that the oxide layers that form at the VN surface is the responsible for the redox energy storage in this material. Such electrodes can compete with other transition metal nitride based electrodes for micro-supercapacitors.

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    An amorphous carbon-graphite composite cathode for long cycle life rechargeable aluminum ion batteries
    Wei Jiang, Chen Wei, Chen Demin, Yang Ke
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 983-989.  DOI: rg/10.1016/j.jmst.2017.06.012
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2838KB) ( 28 )

    Natural graphite is investigated as the cathode for aluminum ion batteries in recent years. However, some drawbacks of the natural graphite such as severe volume swelling shorten its lifetime. In this work, we prepared a composite material by depositing an amorphous carbon on the graphite paper. The composite was used as a cathode to study the electrochemical performance in aluminum ion batteries. The charge/discharge results showed that the composite could exhibit a longer cycle life than the graphite paper. Electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the interface between the amorphous carbon and the graphite paper made a major contribution to the improvement of the cycling stability.

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    Promising commercial reinforcement to the nanodiamond/epoxy composite by grafting ammonium ions
    Wang Qi, Wen Guodong, Liu Lingzhi, Zhu Bo, Su Dangsheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 990-994.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.017
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (994KB) ( 25 )

    A simple, economic, efficient and eco-friendly nanodiamond (ND) modifying method to reinforce the ND/epoxy composite for the industrialization of the high-performance ND/epoxy composite is always desired. In the present work, the ND was successfully modified only using aqueous ammonia through an easy-to-operate method by replacing the hydrogen atoms in the carboxyl group with ammonium ions. Ammonia, which is the only pollutant in the process, could be recycled. The modified ND/epoxy composite showed an overwhelming advantage over the neat epoxy or the ND/epoxy composite in storage modulus in their glassy state without any degradation of tensile strength, hardness and fracture toughness.

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    Improved electrochemical hydrogen storage capacity of Ti45Zr38Ni17 quasicrystal by addition of ZrH2
    Zhao Jianxun, Zhai Xiaojie, Tao Xing, Li Zhe, Wang Qingshuang, Liu Wanqiang, Wang Limin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 995-998.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.10.006
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1140KB) ( 22 )

    Ti45Zr38Ni17 + xZrH2 (x = 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) composite materials are produced by ball milling for 20 min. The results of XRD measurement show that the composite materials contain icosahedral quasicrystal phase (I-phase), FCC phase with a Ti2Ni type crystal and C14 Laves phase. After adding ZrH2, the composite materials include not only the individual phases mentioned above, but also the ZrH phase. These composite materials are used as the negative electrode material of the nickel-metal hydride batteries. The electrochemical hydrogen storage characteristics of the material after adding ZrH is investigated. The Ti45Zr38Ni17 + xZrH2 (x = 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) composite material has reached the maximum discharge capacity (83.2 mA h/g) when x equals 10. This maximum discharge capacity is much higher than that of Ti45Zr38Ni17 alloy without ZrH. After adding ZrH2, the high-rate discharge ability and the cycling stability are enhanced simultaneously. The improvement of the electrochemical properties can be attributed to the synergistic effects of ZrH2, and the synergistic effects in the composite electrodes are probably attributed to the entry of most of hydrogen atoms from weakly bond strength of the Zr-H to the I-phase structure in electrochemical reaction.

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    Analysis of the formation process and performance of magnetic Fe3O4@Poly(4-vinylpyridine) absorbent prepared by in-situ synthesis
    Zeng Birong, Yang Li, Zheng Wei, Zhu Jihong, Ma Xiaojun, Liu Xinyu, Yuan Conghui, Xu Yiting, Dai Lizong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 999-1007.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.07.007
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (3182KB) ( 18 )

    The morphology evolution of the mesoporous magnetic composite nanospheres Fe3O4@Poly(4-vinylpyridine) during the formation process and its absorption property of Congo red were studied in this study. A simple solvothermal method was applied for the fabrication of Fe3O4@Poly(4-vinylpyridine) composites with regular structure and uniform size distribution in the presence of 4-vinylpyridine as the structure inducer. The morphology, structure and magnetism performance were characterized and the adsorption model and mechanism were discussed. The results showed that the Fe3O4@Poly(4-vinylpyridine) composites were efficient adsorbent for the removal of Congo red from water and it could be reused by a magnetic separation. The adsorption isotherm of Congo red on Fe3O4@Poly(4-vinylpyridine) composites was fitted well with the Langmuir adsorption model.

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    Fabrication and characterization of novel biodegradable Zn-Mn-Cu alloys
    Shi Zhang-Zhi, Yu Jing, Liu Xue-Feng, Wang Lu-Ning
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 1008-1015.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.026
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (4411KB) ( 59 )

    Zn-Mn-Cu alloys with micro-alloying of Mn and Cu in Zn are developed as potential biodegradable metals. Although the as-cast alloys are very brittle, their ductilities are significantly improved through hot rolling. Among the as-cast and the as-hot-rolled alloys, as-hot-rolled Zn-0.35Mn-0.41 Cu alloy has the best comprehensive property. It has yield strength of 198.4 ± 6.7 MPa, tensile strength of 292.4 ± 3.4 MPa, elongation of 29.6 ± 3.8% and corrosion rate of 0.050-0.062 mm a-1. A new ternary phase is characterized and determined to be MnCuZn18, which is embedded in MnZn13, resulting in a coarse cellular/dendritic MnZn13-MnCuZn18 compound structure in Zn-0.75 Mn-0.40Cu alloy. Such a coarse compound structure is detrimental for wrought alloy properties, which guides future design of Zn-Mn-Cu based alloys. The preliminary research indicates that Zn-Mn-Cu alloy system is a promising candidate for potential cardiovascular stent applications.

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    Bilayered HA/CS/PEGDA hydrogel with good biocompatibility and self-healing property for potential application in osteochondral defect repair
    You Baihao, Li Qingtao, Dong Hua, Huang Tao, Cao Xiaodong, Liao Hua
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 1016-1025.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.016
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2826KB) ( 25 )

    The fabrication of osteochondral tissue engineering scaffolds comprised of different layers is a big challenge. Herein, bilayers comprised of double network hydrogels with or without nano hydroxyapatite (HAp) were developed by exploiting the radical reaction of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and the Schiff-base reaction of N-carboxyethyl chitosan (CEC) and oxidized hyaluronic acid sodium (OHA) for osteochondral tissue engineering. The bilayered osteochondral scaffold was successfully fabricated based on the superior self-healing property of both hydrogels and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, macroscopic observation and mechanical measurements. In addition, the hydrogels exhibited good biocompatibility as demonstrated by the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo implantation tests. The results indicated that the bilayered hydrogel had great potential for application in osteochondral tissue engineering.

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    Influence of graphene nanoplatelet incorporation and dispersion state on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of biodegradable matrices
    Kashi Sima, K. Gupta Rahul, Kao Nhol, Ali Hadigheh S., N. Bhattacharya Sati
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 1026-1034.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.10.013
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2511KB) ( 34 )

    Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were used as multifunctional nanofiller to enhance thermal and mechanical properties as well as electrical conductivity of two different biodegradable thermoplastics: poly lactide (PLA) and poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). Morphological investigations showed different levels of GNP dispersion in the two matrices, and consequently physical properties of the two systems exhibited dissimilar behaviours with GNP incorporation. Crystallinity of PLA, determined from differential scanning calorimetry, was observed to increase markedly with addition of GNPs in contrast to the decrease in crystallinity of PBAT. Isothermal and non-isothermal thermogravimetric analyses also revealed a more significant delay in thermal decomposition of PLA upon addition of GNPs compared to that of PBAT. Furthermore, results showed that increasing GNP content of PLA and PBAT nanocomposites influenced their Young’s modulus and electrical conductivity in different ways. Modulus of PBAT increased continuously with increasing GNP loading while that of PLA reached a maximum at 9 wt% GNPs and then decreased. Moreover, despite the higher conductivity of pure PBAT compared to pure PLA, conductivity of PLA/GNP nanocomposites overtook that of PBAT/GNP nanocomposites above a certain GNP concentration. This demonstrated the determining effect of nanoplatelets dispersion state on the matrices properties.

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    Surfactant assisted solvothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and study of their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties
    Zare Mina, Namratha K., Byrappa K., Surendra D.M., Yallappa S., Hungund Basavaraj
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 1035-1043.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.09.014
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2843KB) ( 19 )

    This study demonstrated a solvothermal method of growth of three different morphologies of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs): i) flower-like nanorod and nanoflakes, ii) assembled hierarchical structure, and iii) nano granule. Oleic acid (C18H34O2), gluconic acid (C6H12O7) and tween 80 (C64H124O26) were used as surfactant/capping/reducing agent for the formation of different morphologies of nanoparticles. The as-synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by different physicochemical techniques such as UV-vis (UV-vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies. Further, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of these nanostructures was evaluated. The antioxidant activity of these nanostructures was assessed via 2,2-diphenyl,1-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and H2O2 free radical scavenging activity. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the obtained nanostructures was demonstrated against both gram negative (Escherichia coli) and gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial genera. This study revealed antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of different structures of ZnO NPs suggesting their biomedical and industrial applications.

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    Natural diatomite particles: Size-, dose- and shape- dependent cytotoxicity and reinforcing effect on injectable bone cement
    Zhang Xiang, Yang Huilin, Li Song, Qin Gaowu, Yang Lei
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 1044-1053.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.04.020
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (3623KB) ( 22 )

    Natural diatomite (DT) is the ancient deposit of diatom skeleton with many regular pores of 50-200 nm and also an abundant source of biogenic silica. Although silica is considered biologically safe and there is an increasing interest of using natural diatomite for biomedical applications, the toxicity information about natural diatomite is still missing. Here, cytotoxicity of natural diatomite on osteoblasts and fibroblasts were compared to hydroxyapatite and the relationships between cytotoxicity and diatomite sizes, dose, geometry or impurity were systematically investigated. Cell adhesion and interaction with diatomite particles were also fluorescently observed. The results clearly suggested a size-, dose- and shape-dependent cytotoxicity of natural diatomite. Disk-shaped diatomite particles with average size of 30 μm in diameter revealed the least toxicity, while the diatomite particles with irregular shapes and sizes less than 10 μm were remarkably toxic. Diatomite particles with proper sizes were then selected to investigate the reinforcing effect on injectable calcium phosphate bone cement. Results showed that diatomite significantly improved the compressive strength of bone cement but did not alter the injectability of the cement. This work provided important biocompatibility information of natural diatomite and demonstrated the feasibility of using selected diatomite as bone implant material.

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    Hydrothermal growth of whitlockite coating on β-tricalcium phosphate surfaces for enhancing bone repair potential
    Guo Xiaoheng, Liu Xiao, Gao Huichang, Shi Xuetao, Zhao Naru, Wang Yingjun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34 (6): 1054-1059.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.07.009
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1833KB) ( 29 )

    In this study, we developed a simple approach for the controllable growth of whitlockite (WH) on a β-tricalcium phosphate surface and investigated its cell viability via CCK-8, its live-dead staining and its alkaline phosphatase activity. Herein, WH with controllable morphologies was prepared by regulating the hydrothermal reaction conditions. The results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that pure hexagonal plates of WH were prepared successfully. In vitro cell experiments showed that WH possessed excellent biocompatibility and effectively promoted the adhesion and proliferation of mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells. The osteogenesis of the WH was also enhanced. The obtained WH was expected to be utilized for promising applications as implantable block materials for bone repair.

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