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J. Mater. Sci. Technol.  2020, Vol. 37 Issue (0): 143-153    DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.06.016
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Influence of travel speed on microstructure and mechanical properties of wire + arc additively manufactured 2219 aluminum alloy
Yinghui Zhouab, Xin Linab*(), Nan Kangab*(), Weidong Huangab, Jiang Wangab, Zhennan Wangab
a State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China;
b Key Laboratory of Metal High Performance Additive Manufacturing and Innovative Design, MIIT China, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China
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Wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) was preliminarily employed to fabricate the 2219 aluminum alloy. The influence of the electric arc travel speed (TS) on the macro-morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties were investigated. The results indicated that as the electric arc TS increased, the size and the volume fraction of equiaxed grain decreased. The high arc TS during WAAM also promoted the precipitation of the θ (Al2Cu) phase. The volume fractions of θ″ and θ′ phases reached maximum values when TS is 350 and 250 mm/min, respectively. The thermal cycle facilitated the precipitation of the θ′ phase. In addition, the micro-hardness and tensile strength of the alloy were analyzed, and the results indicated that samples fabricated at TS of 350 mm/min possessed finer equiaxed grain and exhibited higher ultimate tensile strength (273.5 MPa) and yield strength (182.9 MPa) compared to those fabricated at 250 mm/min.

Key words:  Wire + arc additive manufacturing      2219 aluminum alloy      Microstructure      Mechanical properties     
Received:  17 December 2018     
Corresponding Authors:  Lin Xin,Kang Nan     E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

Yinghui Zhou, Xin Lin, Nan Kang, Weidong Huang, Jiang Wang, Zhennan Wang. Influence of travel speed on microstructure and mechanical properties of wire + arc additively manufactured 2219 aluminum alloy. J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2020, 37(0): 143-153.

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Cu Mn Mg Zr Ti Zn Al
5.91 0.36 0.39 0.17 0.16 0.10 Bal.
Table 1  Chemical compositions of ER2319 wire (wt%).
Fig. 1.  (a) Schematic diagram of WAAM process, (b) image of the molten pool and droplet transfer, (c) microstructure of metallographic samples using OM and EBSD, the dimensions of tensile specimens and the sampling positions and (d) dimensions of tensile test samples.
Parameter Value
Type of welding current AC
Alternating current frequency 50 Hz
Wire feed speed 2 m/min
TS 150, 250, 350, 450?mm/min
Argon 99.99% purity
Shield gas flow rate 18?L/min
Current intensity 150 A
Tungsten electrode diameter 3.2?mm
Table 2  Deposition parameters.
Fig. 2.  Surface morphologies of the additively manufactured samples fabricated at several TS values.
Travel speed (mm/min) Width (mm) Height (mm)
450 5.7?±?2 10.9?±?2
350 6.8?±?2 10.8?±?2
250 8.7?±?1 15.7?±?1
150 10.6?±?1 18.9?±?1
Table 3  Sizes of deposited layers at several TS values.
Fig. 3.  Cross sections of the specimens deposited at several TS values: (a) 150?mm/min; (b) 250?mm/min; (c) 350?mm/min; (d) 450?mm/min.
Fig. 4.  Microstructures of the samples deposited at several TS values observed using OM: (a) 150?mm/min; (b) 250?mm/min; (c) 350?mm/min; (d) 450?mm/min.
Fig. 5.  Inverse pole figures (IPF) coloring orientation maps from the cross section (y-z plane) of WAAM-processed 2219 aluminum alloy at several TS values: (a) 150?mm/min; (b) 250?mm/min; (c) 350?mm/min; (d) 450?mm/min.
Fig. 6.  Histograms of area fraction of grains distribution analyzed using EBSD at several TS values.
Fig. 7.  SEM images of θ phase in the 2219 aluminum alloy fabricated using WAAM at various TS values: (a) 150?mm/min; (b) 250?mm/min; (c) 350?mm/min; (d) 450?mm/min.
Fig. 8.  SEM images of θ′ phase in the 2219 aluminum alloy fabricated using WAAM at various TS values: (a) 150?mm/min; (b) 250?mm/min; (c) 350?mm/min; (d) 450?mm/min.
Fig. 9.  SEM images of θ″ phase in the 2219 aluminum alloy fabricated using WAAM at different TS values: (a) 150?mm/min; (b) 250?mm/min; (c) 350?mm/min; (d) 450?mm/min.
Fig. 10.  SEM images of θ phase in the 2219 aluminum alloy fabricated using WAAM at various region: (a, c) the upper region; (b, d) the lower region.
Fig. 11.  Micro-hardness of the 2219 aluminum alloy fabricated using WAAM at several TS values.
Fig. 12.  SEM images of θ′ and θ″ phases in the 2219 aluminum alloy fabricated using WAAM at various regions: (a) the equiaxed grain zone; (b) the columnar grain zone.
Fig. 13.  YS, UTS and EL results of WAAM-processed 2219 aluminum alloy deposited at various TS values.
Fig. 14.  SEM images of fracture surfaces of WAAM-processed 2219 aluminum alloy at several TS values: (a) 150?mm/min; (b) 250?mm/min; (c) 350?mm/min; (d) 450?mm/min.
Fig. 15.  Schematic diagram of the reason for the formation of equiaxed grains.
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