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J. Mater. Sci. Technol.  2017, Vol. 33 Issue (11): 1416-1423    DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.06.014
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Comparative study of mechanical and wear behavior of Cu/WS2 composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering and hot pressing
Wang Qunchanga, Chen Minghuia*(), Shan Zhongmaob, Sui Chengguob, Zhang Linc, Zhu Shenglongd, Wang Fuhuia
a Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Material Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
b AVIC Chengdu Aircraft Design & Research Institute, Chengdu 610041, China;
c AVIC Chengdu Aircraft Industrial (Group) Co., Ltd, Chengdu 610041, China
d Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
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Abstract  

The mechanical and wear behavior of copper-tungsten disulfide (Cu/WS2) composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and hot pressing (HP) was investigated, comparatively. Results indicated that the addition of lubricant WS2 substantially reduced wear rate of the Cu matrix composites fabricated by SPS, and the optimum content of WS2 is 20?wt% with regard to the wear behavior. However, it affected a little to the wear rate while dramatically decreased the friction coefficient of the composite fabricated by HP. This difference in friction behavior of the self-lubricating composites fabricated by the two techniques was closely related to their different mechanical properties. Severe interfacial reaction occurred during spark plasma sintering, leading to brittle phase formation at interface.

Key words:  Metal-matrix composites (MMCs)      Hardness      Self-lubricating      Spark plasma sintering      Interfacial reaction     
Received:  28 February 2017     
Corresponding Authors:  Chen Minghui     E-mail:  mhchen@mail.neu.edu.cn
About author: 

1 These two authors contributed equally to this paper.

Cite this article: 

Wang Qunchang, Chen Minghui, Shan Zhongmao, Sui Chengguo, Zhang Lin, Zhu Shenglong, Wang Fuhui. Comparative study of mechanical and wear behavior of Cu/WS2 composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering and hot pressing. J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33(11): 1416-1423.

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https://www.jmst.org/EN/10.1016/j.jmst.2017.06.014     OR     https://www.jmst.org/EN/Y2017/V33/I11/1416

Fig. 1.  Schematic image showing grinding ball and the wear trace.
Fig. 2.  XRD patterns of Cu/WS2 composites fabricated by SPS and HP.
Fig. 3.  SEM microstructures of SPS fabricated Cu/WS2 composites: (a) C10W; (b) C20W; (c) C30W.
Material 298 K 500 K 700 K 900 K 1100 K
Cu -9.9 -18.0 -26.2 -39.9 -52.9
WS2 -278.7 -295.6 -318.4 -345.6 -376.4
Cu2S -115.8 -145.3 -183.1 -226.2 -273.1
W -9.738 -17.7 -27.7 -39.3 -52.0
Table 1  Gibbs free energy (ΔG) for reactants and reaction products in Eq. (2) at different temperatures (kJ mol-1) [30].
Fig. 4.  High-magnification microstructure of SPS fabricated C20W composite (a) and corresponding EDS analysis at point 1 (b), point 2 (c) and point 3 (d).
Fig. 5.  SEM microstructures of HP fabricated C20W composite at (a) low and (b) high magnification.
Fig. 6.  Vickers hardness of Cu/WS2 composites fabricated by SPS and HP.
Fig. 7.  Surface characteristics of Cu/WS2 composites fabricated by SPS for (a) C10W, (b) C20W, (c) C30W and by HP for (d) C20W.
Fig. 8.  Friction coefficients of Cu/WS2 composites fabricated by SPS and HP.
Fig. 9.  Secondary electron SEM micrographs of worn surfaces of Cu/WS2 composites fabricated by SPS: (a) Cu; (b) C10W; (c) C20W; (d) C30W.
Fig. 10.  Secondary electron SEM micrograph of worn surface of HP fabricated C20W.
Fig. 11.  Wear rate of Cu/WS2 composites fabricated by SPS and HP.
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