Selective laser melting is an additive manufacturing method based on local melting of a metal powder bed by a high power laser beam. Fast laser scans are responsible for severe thermal gradients and high cooling rates which produce complex hydrodynamic fluid flow. These phenomena affect crystal growth and orientation and are believed to be the cause of material spattering and microstructural defects, e.g. pores and incompletely melted particles. In this work, the microstructure and texture of 316L bars built along two different orientations and the effect of different distribution of defects on their mechanical response and failure mechanisms were investigated. Partially molten powder particles are believed to be responsible for the scattering in elongation to failure, reduced strength, and premature failure of vertical samples.
Friction stir welding (FSW) has achieved remarkable success in the joining and processing of aluminium alloys and other softer structural alloys. Conventional FSW, however, has not been entirely successful in the joining, processing and manufacturing of different desired materials essential to meet the sophisticated green globe requirements. Through the efforts of improving the process and transferring the existing friction stir knowledge base to other advanced applications, several friction stir based daughter technologies have emerged over the timeline. A few among these technologies are well developed while others are under the process of emergence. Beginning with a broad classification of the scattered frictions stir based technologies into two categories, welding and processing, it appears now time to know, compile and review these to enable their rapid access for reference and academia. In this review article, the friction stir based technologies classified under the category of welding are those applied for joining of materials while the remnant are labeled as friction stir processing (FSP) technologies. This review article presents an overview of four general aspects of both the developed and the developing friction stir based technologies, their associated process parameters, metallurgical features of their products and their feasibility and application to various materials. The lesser known and emerging technologies have been emphasized.
7075 aluminum billets were fabricated by micro droplet deposition manufacturing technique, and the influence of interfacial bonding between metal droplets on the tensile properties was studied. Three sets of samples were manufactured under different temperature conditions, and their mechanical properties were compared. The results show that the temperature of the metal droplets and substrate significantly affect the tensile strength of the sample. Moreover, with proper temperature setting, the 7075 aluminum billets manufactured by micro metal droplet deposition could achieve very good mechanical properties with a tensile strength of 373 MPa and an elongation of 9.95%, which are very similar to those of an extruded sample. Moreover, a metallurgical bonding diagram based on numerical calculations of interfacial temperature was established to predict the interfacial bonding state. In addition, the fracture morphologies of these specimens were observed. It is indicated that there was a significant transformation of failure mechanism with the improvement of metallurgical bonding, which agreed well with the numerical results.
It has been more than three decades since stereolithography began to emerge in various forms of additive manufacturing and 3D printing. Today these technologies are proliferating worldwide in various forms of advanced manufacturing. The largest segment of the 3D printing market today involves various polymer component fabrications, particularly complex structures not daihattainable by other manufacturing methods. Conventional printer head systems have also been adapted to selectively print various speciated human cells and special molecules in attempts to construct human organs, beginning with skin and various tissue patches. These efforts are discussed along with metal and alloy fabrication of a variety of implant and bone replacement components by creating powder layers, which are selectively melted into complex forms (such as foams and other open-cellular structures) using laser and electron beams directed by CAD software. Efforts to create a “living implant” by bone ingrowth and eventual vascularization within these implants will be discussed briefly. Novel printer heads for direct metal droplet deposition as in other 3D printing systems are briefly described since these concepts will allow for the eventual fabrication of very large and complex products, including automotive and aerospace structures and components.
High-performance metal additive manufacturing (AM) has been extensively investigated in recent years because of its unique advantages over traditional manufacturing processes. AM has been applied to form complex components of Ti, Fe or Ni alloys. However, for other nonferrous alloys such as Al alloys, Mg alloys and Cu alloys, AM may not be appropriate because of its melting nature during processing by laser, electron beam, and/or arc. Cold spraying (CS) has been widely accepted as a promising solid-state coating technique in last decade for its mass production of high-quality metals and alloys, and/or metal matrix composites coatings. It is now recognized as a useful and powerful tool for AM, but the related research work has just started. This review summarized the literature on the state-of-the-art and problems for CS as an AM and repairing technique.