J. Mater. Sci. Technol.     2008 24 (05):  675-689     ISSN: 1005-0302:  CN: 21-1315/TG

Doped-TiO2 Photocatalysts and Synthesis Methods to Prepare TiO2 Films
Ying CUI, Hao DU, Lishi WEN
Division of Surface Engineering of Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
Received 2008-03-03  Revised 1900-01-01  Online 2008-09-28
Reference   [1]J.G.Li and T.Ishigaki:Acta Mater.,2004,52,5143.
[2]X.Bokhimi,A.Morales,E.Ortiz,T.Lopez,R.Gomez and J.Navarrete:J.Sol-Gel Sci.Technol.,2004,29, 31.
[3]K.N.P.Kumar,K.Keizer and A.J.Burggraaf:J.Mater. Chem.,1993,3,1141.
[4]B.Hunsche,M.Verg■hl and A.Ritz:Thin Solid Films, 2006,502,188.
[5]D.Wicaksana,A.Kobayashi and A.Kinbara:J.Vac. Sci.Technol.A,1992,10,1479.
[6]R.R.Bacsa and M.Gr■tzeh J.Am.Ceram.Soc.,1996, 79,2185.
[7]K.Okada,N.Yamamoto,Y.Kameshima,A.Yasumori and K.J.D.MacKenzie:J.Am.Ceram.Soc.,2001, 84,591.
[8]O.K.Varghese,D.W.Gong,M.Paulose,C.A.Grimes and E.C.Dickey:J.Mater.Res.,2003,18,156.
[9]U.Diebold:Surf.Sci.Rep.,2003,48,53.
[10]G.V.Samsonov:The Oxide Handbook,2nd edn, IFI/Plenum Press,New York,1982,9.
[11]L.Gao,S.Zheng and Q.H.Zhang:Nano-titanium Diox- ide Photocatalysis Materials and its Application,1st edn,Chemical Industry Press,Beijing,2002,35.
[12]H.Tang,K.Prasad,R.Sanjinbs,P.E.Schmid and F.Lévy:J.Appl.Phys.,1994,75,2042.
[13]J.H.Braun,A.Baidins and R.E.Marganski:Prog.Org. Coat.,1992,20,105.
[14]K.Honda and A.Fujishima:Nature,1972,238,37.
[15]A.Fujishima and D.A.Tryk:in Photoelectrochemical Conversion,ed.K.Honda,Springer,Tokyo,1999,196.
[16]B.O'Regan and M.Gr■tzel:Nature,1991,353,737.
[17]M.Grátzeh Inorg.Chem.,2005,44,6841.
[18]S.N.Frank and A.J.Bard:J.Phys.Chem.,1977,81, 1484.
[19]A.L.Linsebigler,G.Q.Lu and J.T.Yates:Chem.Rev., 1995,95,735.
[20]M.R.Hoffmann, S.T.Martin, W.Choi and D.W.Bahnemann:Chem.Rev.,1995,95,69.
[21]Y.Hu and C.W.Yuan:J.Mater.Sci.Technol.,2006, 22,239.
[22]H.F.Liu,X.N.Cheng,J.Yang,X.H.Yan and H.B.Shi: J.Mater.Sci.Technol.,2007,23,123.
[23]A.Mills and S.K.Lee:J.Photochem.Photobiol.A, 2002,152,233.
[24]R.Wang,K.Hashimoto,A.Fujishima,M.Chikuni, E.Kojima,A.Katamura,M.Shimohigoshi and T.Watanabe:Nature,1997,388,431.
[25]R.Wang,K.Hashimoto,A.Fujishima,M.Chikuni, E.Kojima,A.Kitamura,M.Shimohigoshi and T.Watanabe:Adv.Mater.,1998,10,135.
[26]M.Nakamura,M.Kobayashi,N.Kuzuya,T.Komatsu and T.Mochizuka:Thin Solid Films,2006,502,121.
[27]A.Fujishima,T.N.Rao and D.A.Tryk:J.Photochem. Photobiol.C,2000,1,1.
[28]K.Zakrzewska,M.Radecka and M.Rekas:Thin Solid Films,1997,310,161.
[29]C.Garzella,E.Comini,E.Tempesti,C.Frigeri and G.Sberveglieri:Seas.Actuators.B,2000,68,189.
[30]Y.Shimizu,T.Hyodo and M.Egashira:Sens.Actua- tors.B,2007,121,219.
[31]F.Zhang,Z.Zheng,Y.Chen,X.Liu,A.Che and Z.Jiang: J.Biomed.Mater.Res.,1998,42,128.
[32]J.X.Liu,D.Z.Yang,F.Shi and Y.J.Cai:Thin Solid Films,2003,429,225.
[33]S.Oh and S.Jin:Mater.Sci.Eng.C,2006,26,1301.
[34]H.C.Cheng,S.Y.Lee,C.C.Chen,Y.C.Shyng and K.L.Ou:Appl.Phys.Lett.,2006,89,173902.
[35]Y.Matsumoto,M.Murakami,T.Shono,T.Hasegawa, T.Fukumura,M.Kawasaki,P.Ahmet,T.Chikyow, S.Koshihara and H.Koinuma:Science,2001,291,854.
[36]D.H.Kim,J.S.Yang,K.W.Lee,S.D.Bu,T.W.Noh, S.J.Oh,Y.W.Kim,J.S.Chung,H.Tanaka,H.Y.Lee and T.Kawai:Appl.Phys.Lett.,2002,81,2421.
[37]J.Y.Kim,J.H.Park,B.G.Park,H.J.Noh,S.J.Oh, J.S.Yang,D.H.Kim,S.D.Bu,T.W.Noh,H.J.Lin, H.H.Hsieh and C.T.Chen:Phys.Rev.Lett.,2003, 90,017401.
[38]R.Janisch and N.A.Spaldin:Phys.Rev.B,2006,73, 035201.
[39]A.Hagfeldt and M.Gr■tzel:Chem.Rev.,1995,95,49.
[40]J.M.Rehm, G.L.McLendon, Y.Nagasawa, K.Yoshihara,J.Moser and M.Gr■tzel:J.Phys.Chem., 1996,100,9577.
[41]D.Chatterjee and A.Mahata:Appl.Catal.B,2001, 33,119.
[42]D.Chatterjee and S.Dasgupta:J.Photochem.Photo- biol.C,2005,6,186.
[43]W.Choi,A.Termin and M.R.Hoffmann:J.Phys. Chem.,1994,98,13669.
[44]K.Wilke and H.D.Breuer:d.Photochem.Photobiol. A,1999,121,49.
[45]M.I.Litter:Appl.Catal.B,1999,23,89.
[46]D.Dvoranová,V.Brezová,M.Mazúr and M.A.Malati: Appl.Catal.B,2002,37,91.
[47]R.Asahi,T.Morikawa,T.Ohwaki,K.Aoki and Y.Taga: Science,2001,293,269.
[48]C.D.Valentin,G.Paeehioni and A.Selloni:Phys.Rev. B,2004,70,085116.
[49]S.U.M.Khan,M.A1-Shahry and W.B.Ingler:Science, 2002,297,2243.
[50]T.Umebayashi,T.Yamaki,H.Itoh and K.Asai:Appl. Phys.Lett.,2002,81,454.
[51]J.E.Evans,K.W.Springer and J.Z.Zhang:J.Chem. Phys.,1994,101,6222.
[52]K.Vinodgopal and P.V.Kamat:Environ.Sci.Tech- nol.,1995,29,841.
[53]M.D.Amiridis and J.P.Solart:Ind.Eng.Chem.Res., 1996,35,978.
[54]L.Y.Shi,C.Z.Li,H.C.Gu and D.Y.Fang:Mater. Chem.Phys.,2000,62,62.
[55]W.K.Ho,J.C.Yu,J.Lin,J.G.Yu and P.S.Li:Langmuir, 2004,20,5865.
[56]S.J.Wang,X.T.Zhang,G.Cheng,X.H.Jiang,Y.C.Li, Y.B.Huang and Z.L.Du:Chem.Phys.Lett.,2005, 405,63.
[57]L.Wu,J.C.Yu and X.Z.Fu:J.Mol.Catal.A,2006, 244,25.
[58]J.G.Yu,J.C.Yu,W.K.Ho and Z.T.Jiang:New J. Chem.,2002,26,607.
[59]J.Sabate,M.A.Anderson,H.Kikkawa,M.Edwards and C.G.Hill,Jr:J.Catal.,1991,127,167.
[60]K.Vinodgopal,S.Hotchandani and P.V.Kamat:J. Phys.Chem.,1993,97,9040.
[61]J.A.Byrne,B.R.Eggins,N.M.D.Brown,B.Mickinney and M.Rouse:Appl.Catal.B,1998,17,25.
[62]C.Guillard,B.Beaugiraud,C.Dutriez,J.M.Herrmann, H.Jaffrezic,N.Jaffrezic-Renault and M.Lacroix:Appl. Catal.B,2002,39,331.
[63]Y.J.Chen and D.D.Dionysiou:Appl.Catal.B,2006, 69,24.
[64]H.Choi,E.Stathatos and D.D.Dionysiou:Appl.Catal. B,2006,63,60.
[65]H.M.Yates,M.G.Nolan,D.W.Sheel and M.E.Pemble: J.Photochem.Photobiol.A,2006,179,213.
[66]J.C.Tao,Y.Shen,F.Gu,J.Z.Zhu and J.C.Zhang:J. Mater.Sci.Technol.,2007,23,513.
[67]B.F.Xin,Z.Y.Ren,P.Wang,J.Liu,L.Q.Jing and H.G.Fu:Appl.Surf.Sci.,2007,253,4390.
[68]C.Adán,A.Bahamonde,M.Fernández-Garcia and A.Martinez-Arias:AppL Catal.B,2007,72,11.
[69]S.Klosek and D.Raftery:J.Phys.Chem.B,2001, 105,2815.
[70]J.F.Zhu,Z.G.Deng,F.Chen,J.L.Zhang,H.J.Chen, M.Anpo,J.Z.Huang and L.Z.Zhang:Appl.Catal.B, 2006,62,329.
[71]R.C.W.Lam, M.K.H.Leung, D.Y.C.Leung, L.L.P.Vrijmoed,W.C.Yam and S.P.Ng:Sol.Energ. Mat.Sol.C,2007,91,54.
[72]N.Venkatachalam,M.Palanichamy,B.Arabindoo and V.Murugesan:J.MoL Catal.A,2007,266,158.
[73]A.Di Paola,E.Garcia-López,S.Ikeda,G.Marci, B.Ohtani and L.Palmisano:Catal.Today,2002,75, 87.
[74]V.Brezová,A.Bla■ková,L'.Karpinsk■,J.Gro■ková, B.Havlinová,V.Jorik and M.Ceppan:J.Photochem. Photobiol.A,1997,109,177.
[75]P.Bouras,E.Stathatos and P.Lianos:Appl.Catal.B, 2007,73,51.
[76]M.Anpo,M.Takeuchi,K.Ikeue and S.Dohshi:Curr. Opin.Solid State Mater.Sci.,2002,6,381.
[77]M.Anpo and M.Takeuchi:J.Catal.,2003,216,505.
[78]M.Anpo and M.Takeuchi:Int.J.Photoenergy,2001, 3,89.
[79]K.Nagaveni,M.S.Hegde and G.Madras:J.Phys. Chem.B,2004,108,20204.
[80]M.Casarin,C.Maccato and A.Vittadini:Phys.Chem. Chem.Phys.,1999,1,3793.
[81]T.Nishikawa,T.Nakajima and Y.Shinohara:J.Mol. Struct.,2001,545,67.
[82]S.Karvinen,P.Hirva and T.A.Pakkanen:J.Mol. Struct.,2003,626,271.
[83]M.S.Park,S.K.Kwon and B.I.Min:Phys.Rev.B, 2002,65,161201.
[84]T.Umebayashi,T.Yamaki,H.Itoh and K.Asai:J. Phys.Chem.Solids,2002,63,1909.
[85]J.Premkumar:Chem.Mater.,2004,16,3980.
[86]H.Irie,Y.Watanabe and K.Hashimoto:J.Phys. Chem.B,2003,107,5483.
[87]X.B.Chen and C.Burda:J.Phys.Chem.B,2004, 108,15446.
[88]X.Chen,Y.B.Lou,A.C.S.Samia,C.Burda and J.L.Gole:Adv.Funct.Mater.,2005,15,41.
[89]T.Tachikawa,M.Fujitsuka and T.Majima:J.Phys. Chem.C,2007,111,5259.
[90]S.K.Joung,T.Amemiya,M.Murabayashi and K.Itoh: Appl.Catal.A,2006,312,20.
[91]O.Diwald,T.L.Thompson,T.Zubkov,Ed.G.Goralski, S.D.Walck and J.T.Yates,Jr:J.Phys.Chem.B, 2004,108,6004.
[92]D.M.Chen,D.Yang,Q.Wang and Z.Y.Jiang:Ind. Eng.Chem.Res.,2006,45,4110.
[93]W.Zhao,W.H.Ma,C.C.Chen,J.C.Zhao and Z.G.Shuai:J.Am.Chem.Soc.,2004,126,4782.
[94]M.Shen,Z.Y.Wu,H.Huang,Y.K.Du,Z.G.Zou and P.Yang:Mater.Lett.,2006,60,693.
[95]Y.Choi,T.Umebayashi and M.Yoshikawa:J.Mater. Sci.,2004,39,1837.
[96]R.Hahn,A.Ghicov,J.Satonen,V.P.Lehto and P.Schmuki:Nanotechnology,2007,18,105604.
[97]T.Yamaki,T.Umebayashi,T.Sumita,S.Yamamoto, M.Maekawa,A.Kawasuso and H.Itoh:Nucl.Instrum. Methods Phys.Res.Sect.13,2003,206,254.
[98]S.N.Subbarao,Y.H.Yun,R.Kershaw,K.Dwight and A.Wold:Inorg.Chem.,1979,18,488.
[99]W.Ho,J.C.Yu and S.Lee:Chem.Commun.,2006,10, 1115.
[100]D.Li,H.Haneda,N.K.Labhsetwar,S.Hishita and N.Ohashi:Chem.Phys.Lett.,2005,401,579.
[101]J.C.Yu,J.G.Yu,W.K.Ho,Z.T.Jiang and L.Z.Zhang: Chem.Mater.,2002,14,3808.
[102]L.Lin,W.Lin,Y.X.Zhu,B.Y.Zhao and Y.C.Xie: Chem.Lett.,2005,34,284.
[103]Q.Shi,D.Yang,Z.Y.Jiang and J.Li:J.Mol.Catal.B, 2006,43,44.
[104]T.Umebayashi,T.Yamaki,S.Tanaka and K.Asai: Chem.Lett.,2003,32,330.
[105]T.Ohno,M.Akiyoshi,T.Umebayashi,K.Asai, T.Mitsui and M.Matsumura:Appl.Catal.A,2004, 265,115.
[106]T.Umebayashi,T.Yamaki,S.Yamamoto,A.Miyashita, S.Tanaka T.Sumita and K.Asai:J.Appl.Phys.,2003, 93,51.56.
[107]Q.W.Zhang,J.Wang,S.Yin,T.Sato and F.Saito:J. Am.Ceram.Soe.,2004,87,1161.
[108]S.Matsushima,K.Takehara,H.Yamane,K.Yamada, H.Nakamura,M.Arai and K.Kobayashi:J.Phys. Chem.Solids,2007,68,206.
[109]G.Liu,Z.G.Chen,C.L.Dong,Y.N.Zhao,F.Li,G.Q.Lu and H.M.Cheng:J.Phys.Chem.B,2006,110,20823.
[110]M.C.Long,W.M.Cai,Z.P.Wang and G.Z.Liu:Chem. Phys.Lett.,2006,420,71.
[111]X.T.Hong,Z.P.Wang,W.M.Cai,F.Lu,J.Zhang, Y.Z.Yang,N.Ma and Y.J.Liu:Chem.Mater.,2005, 17,1548.
[112]S.Sato:Chem.Phys.Lett.,1986,123,126.
[113]T.Morikawa,R.Asahi,T.Ohwaki,K.Aoki and Y.Taga: Jpn.J.Appl.Phys.,Part 2,2001,40,L561.
[114]S.Sakthivel,M.Janczarek and H.Kiseh:J.Phys. Chem.B,2004,108,19384.
[115]C.D.Valentin,G.Pacchioni,A.Selloni,S.Livraghi and E.Giamello:J.Phys.Chem.B,2005,109,11414.
[116]T.Lindgren,J.M.Mwabora,E.Avendano,J.Jonsson, A.Hoel,C.G.Granqvist and S.E.Lindquist:J.Phys. Chem.B,2003,107,5709.
[117]V.N.Kuznetsov and N.Serpone:J.Phys.Chem.B, 2006,110,25203.
[118]N.Serpone:J.Phys.Chem.B,2006,110,24287.
[119]H.Wang and J.P.Lewis:J.Phys.:Condens.Matter., 2006,18,421.
[120]G.S.Wu,T.Nishikawa,B.Ohtani and A.C.Chen: Chem.Mater.,2007,19,4530.
[121]C.D.Valentin,G.Pacchioni and A.Selloni:Chem. Mater.,2005,17,6656.
[122]J.Y.Lee,J.Park and J.H.Cho:Appl.Phys.Lett., 2005,87,011904.
[123]H.Kamisaka,T.Adachi and K.Yamashita:J.Chem. Phys.,2005,123,084704.
[124]J.G.Yu,J.C.Yu,B.Cheng,S.K.Hark and K.Iu:J.Solid State Chem..2003,174,372.
[125]H.Geng,S.W.Yin,X.Yang,Z.G.Shuai and B.G.Liu:J. Phys.:Condens.Matter.,2006,18,87.
[126]J.C.Yu,L.Z.Zhang,Z.Zheng and J.C.Zhao:Chem. Mater.2003.15.2280.
[127]L.K■r■si and I.Dékány:Colloids and Surf.A,2006, 280,146.
[128]D.Li,H.Haneda,S.Hishita and N.Ohashi:Chem. Mater.,2005,17,2588.
[129]D.Li,H.Haneda,S.Hishita and N.Ohashi:Chem. Mater.,2005,17,2596.
[130]D.Li,N.Ohashi,S.Hishita,T.Kolodiazhnyi and H.Haneda:J.Solid State Chem.,2005,178,3293.
[131]D.G.Huang,S.J.Liao,J.M.Liu,Z.Dang and L.Petrik: J.Photochem.Photobiol.A,2006,184,282.
[132]J.G.Yu,M.H.Zhou,B.Cheng and X.J.Zhao:J.Mol. Catal.A,2006,246,176.
[133]Y.Cong,F.Chen,J.L.Zhang and M.Anpo:Chem. Lett.,2006,35,800.
[134]D.M.Chen,Z.Y.Jiang,J.Q.Geng,Q.Wang and D.Yang:Ind.Eng.Chem.Res.,2007,46,2741.
[135]H.M.Luo,T.Takata,Y.G.Lee,J.F.Zhao,K.Domen and Y.S.Yan:Chem.Mater.,2004,16,846.
[136]Y.Cong,J.L.Zhang,F.Chen,M.Anpo and D.N.He:J. Phys.Chem.C,2007,111,10618.
[137]N.Negishi,T.Iyoda,K.Hashimoto and A.Fujishima: Chem.Lett.,1995,9,841.
[138]Y.Y.Xiong,T.Ma,L.H.Kong,J.F.Chen,X.Q.Wu, H.H.Yu and Z.X.Zhang:J.Mater.Sci.Technol.,2006, 22,353.
[139]M.Bockmeyer and P.LSbmann:Chem.Mater.,2006, 18,4478.
[140]M.Maeda and S.Yamasaki:Thin Solid Films,2005, 483,102.
[141]N.P.Mellott,C.Durucan,C.G.Pantano and M.Guglielmi:Thin Solid Films,2006,502,112.
[142]J.G.Yu,X.J.Zhao and Q.N.Zhao:Thin Solid Films, 2000,379,7.
[143]J.C.Yu,J.G.Yu and J.C.Zhao:Appl.Catal.B,2002, 36,31.
[144]H.Nagayama,H.Honda and H.Kawahara:J.Elec- trochem.Soc.,1988,135,2013.
[145]H.Kishimoto,K.Takahama,N.Hashimoto,Y.Aoi and S.Deki:J.Mater.Chem.,1998,8,2019.
[146]X.P.Wang,Y.Yu,X.F.Hu and L.Gao:Thin Solid Films,2000,371,148.
[147]J.G.Yu,H.G.Yu,B.Cheng,X.J.Zhao,J.C.Yu and W.K.Ho:J.Phys.Chem.B,2003,107,13871.
[148]A.Dutschke,C.Diegelmann and P.Lobmann:J.Mater. Chem.,2003,13,1058.
[149]S.Deki,S.Iizuka,M.Mizuhata and A.Kajinami:J. Electroanal.Chem.,2005,584,38.
[150]J.G.Yu,H.G.Yu,C.H.Ao,S.C.Lee,J.C.Yu and W.K.Ho:Thin Solid Films,2006,496,273.
[151]D.Gutierrez-Tauste,X.Domenech,N.Casan-Pastor and J.A.Ayllon:J.Photochem.Photobiol.A,2007, 187,45.
[152]M.K.Lee,J.J.Huang and C.F.Yen:J.Electrochem. Soc.,2007,154,117.
[153]G.A.Battiston,R.Gerbasi,M.Porchia and A.Marigo: Thin Solid Films,1994,239,186.
[154]A.Borrás,C.L■pez,V.Rico,F.Gracia,A.R.Gonz■lez- Elipe,E.Richter,G.Battiston,R.Gerbasi, N.McSporran,G.Sauthier,E.Gy■gy and A.Figueras: J.Phys.Chem.C,2007,111,1801.
[155]F.K.Lee,G.Andreatta.and J.J.Benattar:Appl.Phys. Lett.,2007,90,181928.
[156]H.Y.Lee,Y.H.Park and K.H.Ko:Langmuir,2000,16, 7289.
[157]B.C.Kang,S.B.Lee and J.H.Boo:Surf.Coat.Tech- nol.,2000,131,88.
[158]D.J.Won,C.H.Wang,H.K.Jang and D.J.Choi:Appl. Phys.A,2001,73,595.
[159]C.K.Jung,B.C.Kang,H.Y.Chae,Y.S.Kim,M.K.Seo, S.K.Kim,S.B.Lee,J.H.Boo,Y.J.Moon and J.Y.Lee: J.Cryst.Growth,2002,235,450.
[160]M.Kang,J.H.Lee,S.H.Lee,C.H.Chung,K.J.Yoon, K.Ogino,S.Miyata and S.J.Choung:J.Mol.Catal. A,2003,193,273.
[161]G.A.Battiston,R.Gerbasi,A.Gregori,M.Porchia, S.Cattarin and G.A.Rizzi:Thin Solid Films,2000, 371,126.
[162]J.M.Mwabora,T.Lindgrcen,E.Avenda■o,T.F.Jaramillo, J.Lu,S.E.Lindquist and C.G.Granqvist:J.Phys. Chem.B,2004,108,20193.
[163]L.J.Meng,V.Teixeira,H.N.Cui,F.Placido,Z.Xu and M.P.dos Santos:Appl.Surf.Sci.,2006,250,7970.
[164]L.J.Meng,M.Andritschky and M.P.dos Santos:Appl. Surf.Sci.,1993,65/66,235.
[165]L.J.Meng,M.Andritschky and M.P.dos Santos:Thin Solid Film,1993,223,242.
[166]L.J.Meng and M.P.dos Santos:Thin Solid Film,1993, 226,22.
[167]Y.Nakano,T.Morikawa,T.Ohwaki and Y.Taga:Appl. Phys.Lett.,2005,86,132104.
[168]D.Guerin and S.Ismat Shah:J.Vac.Sci.Technol.A, 1997,15,712.
[169]S.Z.Chen,P.Y.Zhang,D.M.Zhuang and W.P.Zhu: Catal.Commun.,2004,5,677.
[170]C.J.Tavares,J.Vieira,L.Rebouta,G.Hungerford, P.Coutinho,V.Teixeira,J.O.Carneiro and A.J.Fernandes:Mater.Sci.Eng.,B,2007,138, 139.
[171]M.Kitano,K.Funatsu,M.Matsuoka,M.Ueshima and M.Anpo:J.Phys.Chem.B,2006,110,25266.
[172]J.O.Carneiro,V.Teixeira,A.Portinha,A.Magalh■es, P.Coutinho,C.J.Tavares and R.Newton:Mater.Sci. Eng.B,2007,138,144.
[173]Y.Cui,H.Du,S.W.Lee,C.Sun and L.S.Wen:Mater. Sci.Forum,2007,544-545,27.
[174]Y.Cui,H.Du,J.Q.Xiao and L.S.Wen:J.Mater.Sci. Technol.,2008,24,172.
[175]L.Sirghi,T.Aoki and Y.Hatanaka:Thin Solid Films, 2002,422,55.
[176]M.Yamagishi,S.Kuriki,P.K.Song and Y.Shigesata: Thin Solid Films,2003,442,227.
[177]L.S.Wen and R.F.Huang:Surf.Coat.Technol.,2005, 193,1.
[178]M.Zhang,G.Q.Lin,C.Dong and L.S.Wen:Surf.Coat. Technol.,2007,201,7252.
[179]J.T.Chang,C.W.Su and J.L.He:Surf.Coat.Technol., 2006,200,3027.
[180]J.T.Chang,Y.F.Lai and J.L.He:Surf.Coat.Technol., 2005,200,1640.
[181]H.Yumoto,S.Matsudo and K.Akashi:Vacuum,2002, 65,509.
[182]A.Bendavid,P.J.Martin and H.Takikawa:Thin Solid Films,2000,360,241.
[183]P.J.Martin and A.Bendavid:Thin Solid Films,2001, 394,1.
[184]M.D.Huang,Y.P.Lee,C.Dong,G.Q.Lin,C.Sun and L.S.Wen:J.Vac.Sci.Technol.A,2004,22,250.
[185]B.K.Tay,Z.W.Zhao and D.H.C.Chua:Mater.Sci. Eng.R,2006,52,1.
[186]Z.W.Zhao and B.K.Tay:J.Appl.Phys.,2007,101, 013505.

Corresponding author: Lishi WEN