Strted in 1985 Monthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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A review of Fe3O4 thin films: Synthesis, modification and applications
Xiaoyi Wang, Yulong Liao, Dainan Zhang, Tianlong Wen, Zhiyong Zhong
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1259-1272.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.01.011
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Magnetite (Fe3O4) has been used for thousands of years as one of the important magnetic materials. The rapid developments of thin film technology in the past few decades attract the attention of material scientists on the fabrication of magnetite thin films. In this article, we present an overview of recent progress on Fe3O4 thin films. The widely used preparation methods are surveyed, and the effect of substrates is discussed. Specifically the modified Fe3O4 thin films exhibit excellent electrical and magnetic properties compared with the pure films. It is noteworthy that modified Fe3O4 thin films can be put into two categories: (1) doped films, where foreign metal ions substitute iron ions at A or B sites; and (2) hybrid films, where magnetite phases are mixed with other materials. Notably, Fe3O4 thin films show great potentials in many applications such as sensors and batteries. It is expected that the investigations of Fe3O4 thin films will give us some breakthroughs in materials science and technology.

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Structural design of Cr/GLC films for high tribological performance in artificial seawater: Cr/GLC ratio and multilayer structure
Lei Li, Peng Guo, Lin-Lin Liu, Xiaowei Li, Peiling Ke, Aiying Wang
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1273-1280.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.12.002
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In this paper, graphite-like carbon (GLC) films with Cr buffer layer were fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering technique with the thickness ratio of Cr to GLC films varying from 1:2 to 1:20. The effect of Cr/GLC modulation ratio on microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties in artificial seawater was mainly investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), nano-indenter and a reciprocating sliding tribo-meter. The propagation of defects plays an important role in the evolution of delamination, which is critical to wear failure of GLC films in artificial seawater. Designing the proper multilayer structure could inhibit the defects propagation and thus protect the basis material. The multilayer Cr/GLC film with optimized ratio of 1:3 demonstrates a low average friction coefficient of 0.08?±?0.006 and wear rate of (2.3?±?0.3)?×?10-8?mm3/(N?m) in artificial seawater, respectively.

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Microstructure and intergranular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of a SA508-52M-316L dissimilar metal weld joint in primary water
Lijin Dong, Qunjia Peng, En-Hou Han, Wei Ke, Lei Wang
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1281-1292.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.051
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Correlation of microstructure and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility for the SA508-52M-316L dissimilar metal weld joint in primary water was investigated by the interrupted slow strain rate tension test following a microstructure characterization. The susceptibility to IGSCC in various regions of the dissimilar metal weld joint was observed to follow the order of Alloy 52 Mb> the heat affected zone of 316L> the dilution zone of Alloy 52 Mw> Alloy 52 Mw weld metal. The chromium-depletion at the grain boundary is the dominant factor causing the high IGSCC susceptibility of Alloy 52 Mb. However, IGSCC initiation in the heat affected zone of 316L is attributed to the increase of residual strain adjacent to the grain boundary. In addition, the decrease of chromium content and increase of residual strain adjacent to the grain boundary increase the IGSCC susceptibility of the dilution zone of Alloy 52 Mw.

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Bimodal TBCs with low thermal conductivity deposited by a powder-suspension co-spray process
Wei-Wei Zhang, Guang-Rong Li, Qiang Zhang, Guan-Jun Yang, Guo-Wang Zhang, Hong-Min Mu
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1293-1304.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.052
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Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with better thermal barrier performance are required by both advanced gas turbine and air engine. In this work, novel bimodal TBCs with low thermal conductivity were deposited and characterized by a novel co-spray approach with both solid powder and suspension. Experimental and finite element analyses were used to optimize the process parameters to prepare the specific morphology nanostructure features. With a comprehensive understanding on the influence of spraying parameters on the morphology of nano-particles, homogeneous nano-particle heaps with a large aspect ratio were introduced to conventional layered coatings by plasma co-spraying with suspension and solid powder. Co-sprayed bimodal microstructure composite coatings resulted from both wet suspension droplets and molten particle droplets exhibited low thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the composite coating was 1/5 lower than that of the counterpart coatings by conventional plasma spraying with solid powder. This study sheds light to the structural tailoring towards the advanced TBCs with low thermal conductivity.

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Mechanism of improved electromigration reliability using Fe-Ni UBM in wafer level package
Li-Yin Gao, Hao Zhang, Cai-Fu Li, Jingdong Guo, Zhi-Quan Liu
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1305-1314.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.046
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Fe-Ni films with compositions of 73 wt% of Ni and 45 wt% of Ni were used as under bump metallization (UBM) in wafer level chip scale package, and their reliability was evaluated through electromigration (EM) test compared with commercial Cu UBM. For Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu(SAC)/Cu solder joints, voids had initiated at Cu cathode after 300 h and typical failures of depletion of Cu cathode and cracks were detected after 1000 h EM. While the SAC/Fe-Ni solder joints kept at a perfect condition without any failures after 1000 h EM. Moreover, the characteristic lifetime calculated by Weibull analysis for Fe-73Ni UBM (2121 h), Fe-45Ni UBM (2340 h) were both over three folds to Cu UBM’s (698 h). The failure modes for Fe-Ni solder joints varied with the different growth behavior of intermetallic compounds (IMCs), which can all be classified as the crack at the cathodic interface between solder and outer IMC layer. The atomic fluxes concerned cathode dissolution and crack initiation were analyzed. When Fe-Ni UBM was added, cathode dissolution was suppressed due to the low diffusivity of IMCs and opposite transferring direction to electron flow of Fe atoms. The smaller EM flux within solder material led a smaller vacancy flux in Fe-Ni solder joints, which can explain the delay of solder voids and cracks as well as the much longer lifetime under EM.

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Effects of scanning speed on microstructure in laser surface-melted single crystal superalloy and theoretical analysis
Guowei Wang, Jingjing Liang, Yanhong Yang, Yu Shi, Yizhou Zhou, Tao Jin, Xiaofeng Sun
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1315-1324.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.027
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Scanning speed is a critical parameter for laser process, which can play a key role in the microstructure evolution of laser melting. In the laser melting of single crystal superalloy, the effects of scanning speed were investigated by experimental analysis and computational simulation. The laser was scanning along [71ˉ0] direction on (001) surface in different speeds. Solidification microstructures of dendrites growth direction and the primary dendritic spacing were analyzed by metallograph. Besides, a planar interface during solidification was taken into attention. Experiment results indicated that the primary dendritic spacing and thickness of planar interface decrease with the increase of speed. Through simulation, distribution of dendrites growth velocity and thermal gradient along dendrite growth direction were calculated, and the simulation of dendrites growth direction agreed with the experiment results. Additionally, a constant value was acquired which can be used to predict the primary dendritic spacing. Moreover, according to curve-fitting method and inequality relation, a model was proposed to predict the thickness of planar interface.

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Enhanced resistance of 2205 Cu-bearing duplex stainless steel towards microbiologically influenced corrosion by marine aerobic Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms
Dake Xu, Enze Zhou, Ying Zhao, Huabing Li, Zhiyong Liu, Dawei Zhang, Chunguang Yang, Hai Lin, Xiaogang Li, Ke Yang
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1325-1336.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.025
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An antibacterial 2205-Cu duplex stainless steel (DSS) was shown to inhibit the formation and growth of corrosive marine biofilms by direct contact with copper-rich phases and the release of Cu2+ ions from the 2205-Cu DSS surface. In this work, the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) resistance of 2205-Cu DSS in the presence of the corrosive marine bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. The addition of copper improved the mechanical properties such as the yield strength, the tensile strength and the hardness of 2205 DSS. Electrochemical test results from linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and critical pitting temperature (CPT) measurements showed that 2205-Cu DSS possessed a larger polarization resistance (Rp), charge transfer resistance (Rct) and CPT values, indicating the excellent MIC resistance of 2205-Cu DSS against the corrosive P. aeruginosa biofilm. The live/dead staining results and the SEM images of biofilm confirmed the strong antibacterial ability of 2205-Cu DSS. The largest pit depth of 2205-Cu DSS was considerably smaller than that of 2205 DSS after 14 d in the presence of P. aeruginosa (2.2 μm vs 12.5 μm). 2205-Cu DSS possessed a superior MIC resistance to regular 2205 DSS in the presence of aerobic P. aeruginosa.

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High-temperature phase transition behavior and magnetocaloric effect in a sub-rapidly solidified La-Fe-Si plate produced by centrifugal casting
Zhishuai Xu, Yuting Dai, Yue Fang, Zhiping Luo, Ke Han, Changjiang Song, Qijie Zhai, Hongxing Zheng
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1337-1343.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.023
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A sub-rapidly solidified LaFe11.6Si1.4 plate was fabricated directly from liquid by centrifugal casting method. The phase constitution, microstructure and magnetocaloric effect were investigated using backscatter scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and physical property measurement system. When the plate was annealed at 1373 K, τ1 phase was formed by a solid-state peritectoid reaction. A first-order magnetic phase transition occurred in the vicinity of 188 K, and the effective refrigeration capacities reached 203.5 J/kg and 209.7 J/kg in plates annealed for 1 h and 3 h, respectively, under a magnetic field change of 3 T. It is suggested that centrifugal casting may become a new approach to prepare high-performance La-Fe-Si magnetocaloric plates for practical applications, which could largely accelerate the formation of τ1 phase during high-temperature heat-treatment process due to refined and homogeneous honeycombed microstructure.

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Atom probe tomographic observation of hydrogen trapping at carbides/ferrite interfaces for a high strength steel
Y.F. Jiang, B. Zhang, Y. Zhou, J.Q. Wang, E.-H. Han, W. Ke
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1344-1348.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.008
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A three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) technique has been used to characterize the hydrogen distribution on carbides for a high strength AISI 4140 steel. Direct evidence of H atoms trapped at the carbide/ferrite interfaces has been revealed by 3DAP mapping. Hydrogen is mainly trapped on carbide/ferrite interfaces along the grain boundaries. Slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) testing shows that the AISI 4140 steel is highly sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement. The corresponding fractographic morphologies of hydrogen charged specimen exhibit brittle fracture feature. Combined with these results, it is proposed that the hydrogen trapping sites present in the grain boundaries are responsible for the hydrogen-induced intergranular fracture of AISI 4140. The direct observation of hydrogen distribution contributes to a better understanding of the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement.

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Effect of residual dissolved oxygen on the corrosion behavior of low carbon steel in 0.1 M NaHCO3 solution
Fang Xue, Xin Wei, Junhua Dong, Ini-Ibehe Nabuk Etim, Changgang Wang, Wei Ke
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1349-1358.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.004
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The effect of residual dissolved oxygen (DO) on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in 0.1 M NaHCO3 solution was investigated by electrochemical measurements, corrosion mass loss test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In the initial immersion stage, the increase of the dissolved oxygen concentration led to the change of from a reductive state of active dissolution to an oxidizing state of pseudo passivation in low carbon steel. While in the final stage, all the steels transformed into the steady state of pseudo passivation. In the anaerobic solution, the formation of α-FeOOH was attributed to the chemical oxidization of the ferrous corrosion products and the final cathodic process only included the reduction of α-FeOOH, while in the aerobic solution, it included the reduction of oxygen and α-FeOOH simultaneously. As the main corrosion products, the content of α-FeOOH was increased while that of Fe6(OH)12CO3 was decreased with increasing concentration of dissolved oxygen. The total corrosion mass loss of the steel was promoted with the increase of dissolved oxygen concentration.

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An intrinsic correlation between driving force and energy barrier upon grain boundary migration
Bo Lin, Kang Wang, Feng Liu, Yaohe Zhou
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1359-1363.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.002
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The migration of grain boundary (GB), which plays a key role in the microstructural evolution of polycrystalline materials, remains mysterious due to the unknown relationship between GB mobility associated with specific geometry and external conditions (e.g. temperature, stress, etc., hence the thermodynamic driving force). Combining the rate equation of GB migration with molecular dynamics simulations, an intrinsic correlation between driving force and energy barrier for the migration of various types of GBs (i.e. twist, symmetric tilt, asymmetric tilt, and mixed twist-tilt) is herein explored, showing the decrease of energy barrier with increasing thermodynamic driving force.

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Orientation dependence of deformation twinning in Cu single crystals
S.S. Cai, ,
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1364-1370.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.10.004
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Cu single crystals were subjected to dynamic compression plastic deformation to investigate orientation-dependent twinning. The experimental results showed that twinning is closely related to the ratio of the maximum Schmid factor for twinning partial (mT) to the maximum Schmid factor for perfect dislocation (mS), i.e., mT/mS, rather than mT. The twin volume fraction VT increases with the mT/mS value and the most favorable orientation for twinning has the maximum mT/mS value (1.15). The relationships of mT/mS with both effective stacking fault energy γeff and threshold stress for twinning τT were established for understanding orientation-dependent twinning. Further insights into the orientation-dependent twinning and guidance for developing bulk high density nanotwinned materials are provided.

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Polysaccharide-based magnetically responsive polyelectrolyte hydrogels for tissue engineering applications
Kummara Madhusudana Rao, Anuj Kumar, Sung Soo Han
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1371-1377.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.10.003
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Polysaccharide-based bionanocomposite hydrogels with functional nanomaterials were used in biomedical applications. Self-organization of xanthan gum and chitosan in the presence of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4 MNPs) allowed us to form magnetically responsive polyelectrolyte complex hydrogels (MPECHs) via insitu ionic complexation using D-(+)-glucuronic acid δ-lactone as a green acidifying agent. Characterization confirmed the successful formation of (and structural interactions within) the MPECH and good porous structure. The rheological behavior and compressive properties of the PECH and MPECH were measured. The results indicated that the incorporation of Fe3O4 MNPs into the PECH greatly improved mechanical properties and storage modulus (G'). In vitro cell culture of NIH3T3 fibroblasts on MPECHs showed improvements in cell proliferation and adhesion in an external magnetic field relative to the pristine PECH. The results showed that the newly developed MPECH could potentially be used as a magnetically stimulated system in tissue engineering applications.

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Cobalt(II) coordination polymers as anodes for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced capacity and cycling stability
Yumei Luo, Lixian Sun, Fen Xu, Siyue Wei, Qingyong Wang, Hongliang Peng, Chonglin Chen
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (8): 1412-1418.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.006
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Coordination polymer Co-btca (H4btca=1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid) was synthesized using a simply hydrothermal method. In particular, the as-prepared Co-btca was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion battery for the first time. Single crystal X-ray diffraction results indicated that the as-prepared Co-btca displayed unique layer structure, which was beneficial to transport Li ions and electrons. Also, owing to the porous structure and appropriate specific surface area, Co-btca electrode delivered a reversible capacity of 801.3mA h/g after 50 cycles at a current density of 200mA/g. The reversible capacity of 773.9mA h/g was maintained after 200 cycles at a current density of 500 mA/g, exhibiting enhanced cycle stability. It also showed improved rate performance, making it a promising anode material and a new choice for lithium-ion batteries.

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In-situ synthesis of TiO2 nanostructures on Ti foil for enhanced and stable photocatalytic performance
Ke Wang, Baodan Liu, Jing Li, Xiaoyuan Liu, Yang Zhou, Xinglai Zhang, Xiaoguo Bi, Xin Jiang
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (4): 615-622.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.09.053
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TiO2 nanostructures with strong interfacial adhesion and diverse morphologies have been in-situ grown on Ti foil substrate through a multiple-step method based on conventional plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technology, hydrothermal reaction and ion exchange process. The PEO process is critical to the formation of TiO2 seeding layer for the nucleation of Na2Ti3O7 and H2Ti3O7 mediates that are strongly attached to the Ti foil. An ion exchange reaction can finally lead to the formation of H2Ti3O7 nanostructures with diverse morphologies and the calcination process can turn the H2Ti3O7 nanostructures into TiO2 nanostructures with enhanced crystallinity. The morphology of the TiO2 nanostructures including nanoparticles (NP), nanowhiskers (NWK), nanowires (NW) and nanosheets (NS) can be easily tailored by controlling the NaOH concentration and reaction time during hydrothermal process. The morphology, composition and optical properties of TiO2 photocatalysts were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and UV-vis absorption spectrum. Photocatalytic tests indicate that the TiO2 nanosheets calcined at 500 °C show good crystallization and the best capability of decomposing organic pollutants. The decoration of Ag cocatalyst can further improve the photocatalytic performance of the TiO2 nanosheets as a result of the enhanced charger separation efficiency. Cyclic photocatalytic test using TiO2 nanostructures grown on Ti foil substrate demonstrates the superior stability in the photodegradation of organic pollutant, suggesting the promising potential of in-situ growth technology for industrial application.

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Wear behavior of light-weight and high strength Fe-Mn-Ni-Al matrix self-lubricating steels
Liuliu Han, Kun Li, Cheng Qian, Jingwen Qiu, Chengshang Zhou, Yong Liu
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (4): 623-630.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.09.070
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The good combination of mechanical and tribological properties for self-lubricating materials is crucial. In this work, novel self-lubricating Fe-16.4Mn-4.8Ni-9.9Al-xC (wt%) steels containing graphite phase were fabricated using mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The compositions of the steels were designed by using thermodynamic calculation, and the effect of carbon addition on the microstructure was further investigated. The steel possesses high hardness of 621 HV, high yield strength of 1437 MPa and good fracture toughness at room temperature. The yield strengths are still above 600 MPa at 600 °C. The tribological behavior and mechanical properties from room temperature to 800 °C were studied, and the wear mechanisms at elevated temperatures were discussed. The steel has a stable friction coefficient of 0.4 and wear rate in a magnitude of 10-6 mm3/N·m below 600 °C. The good tribological properties of the steels were mainly attributed to the high hardness, lubrication of graphite and stable surface oxide layer.

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Toward a better understanding of microbiologically influenced corrosion caused by sulfate reducing bacteria
Tingyue Gu, Ru Jia, Tuba Unsal, Dake Xu
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (4): 631-636.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.10.026
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Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are often the culprits of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in anoxic environments because sulfate is a ubiquitous oxidant. MIC of carbon steel caused by SRB is the most intensively investigated topic in MIC because of its practical importance. It is also because biogenic sulfides complicate mechanistic SRB MIC studies, making SRB MIC of carbon steel is a long-lasting topic that has generated considerable confusions. It is expedient to think that biogenic H2S secreted by SRB acidifies the broth because it is an acid gas. However, this is not true because endogenous H2S gets its H+ from organic carbon oxidation and the fluid itself in the first place rather than an external source. Many people believe that biogenic H2S is responsible for SRB MIC of carbon steel. However, in recent years, well designed mechanistic studies provided evidence that contradicts this misconception. Experimental data have shown that cathodic electron harvest by an SRB biofilm from elemental iron via extracellular electron transfer (EET) for energy production by SRB is the primary cause. It has been demonstrated that when a mature SRB biofilm is subjected to carbon source starvation, it switches to elemental iron as an electron source and becomes more corrosive. It is anticipated that manipulations of EET related genes will provide genetic-level evidence to support the biocathode theory in the future. This kind of new advances will likely lead to new gene probes or transcriptomics tools for detecting corrosive SRB strains that possess high EET capabilities.

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Passivity breakdown on 436 ferritic stainless steel in solutions containing chloride
Jiaming Wang, Shengsheng Qian, Yanhui Li, Digby D. Macdonald, Yiming Jiang, Jin Li
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (4): 637-643.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.10.030
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Passivity breakdown on 436 ferritic stainless steel (FSS) has been investigated in solutions containing different concentrations of chloride at 25 °C and interpreted in terms of the point defect model (PDM). The measured near-normal distributions of passivity breakdown potentials for 436 FSS under experimental conditions are in good agreement with the calculated results according to the PDM. The linear dependence of breakdown potential on the square root of potential scanning rate, which was described by the PDM, provides the estimation of the critical concentration of condensed vacancies at the metal/film interface, which leads to the passivity breakdown. This value is in good agreement with that calculated from the microstructure properties of the alloy substrate and the barrier layer of the passive film. This study demonstrates the validity of the PDM in describing the passivity breakdown on 436 FSS in NaCl solutions.

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Nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon coated mesocarbon microbeads as excellent high rate Li storage anode materials
Zhimin Zou, Chunhai Jiang
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (4): 644-650.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.10.016
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A composite anode material consisting of a stable inner core of mesocarbon microbeads and a porous nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon shell active for lithium storage is prepared. The thin birnessite MnO2 nanosheets hydrothermally deposited on mesocarbon microbeads are in situ replaced by polypyrrole, which is then transformed to nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon layer by calcination in nitrogen atmosphere. The surface modified mesocarbon microbeads exhibit average discharge capacities of 444 and 103 mA h g-1 at the current densities of 0.1 and 3 A g-1, respectively, obvious higher than the corresponding values of the bare sample, 371 and 60 mA h g-1. Moreover, the composite anode maintains a discharge capacity of 306 mA h g-1 after 500 cycles at 1 A g-1, suggesting an excellent cycle stability. It is believed that the nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon layer has provided additional lithium storage capacity and stabilized the structure integrity of mesocarbon microbeads. This work demonstrates that the capacity and rate performance of commercial graphitic carbons can be much improved by simply introducing a nitrogen-doped carbon coating layer active for Li storage, making them attractive for high power Li-ion batteries.

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Electrochemical corrosion behavior of 2A02 Al alloy under an accelerated simulation marine atmospheric environment
Min Cao, Li Liu, Zhongfen Yu, Lei Fan, Ying Li, Fuhui Wang
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (4): 651-659.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.09.060
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The corrosion behavior of 2A02 Al alloy under simulated marine atmospheric environment has been studied using mass-gain, scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), laser scanning confocal microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and localized electrochemical methods. The results demonstrate that the relationship between the corrosion induced mass-gain and the corrosion time is in accordance with the power rule. The mass-gain increases gradually during the corrosion time, while the corrosion rate decreases. With ongoing of the corrosion, corrosion products film changed from a porous to a compact structure. The various spectroscopic data show that the corrosion products films composed mainly of Al(OH)3, Al2O3 and AlCl3. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of the 2A02 Al alloy was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

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Interaction of {11$\bar{2}$2} twin variants in hexagonal close-packed titanium
Xiaocui Li, Jingwei Li, Bo Zhou, Mingchao Yu, Manling Sui
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (4): 660-666.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.09.049
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As multiple {11$\bar{2}$ 2} twin variants are often formed during deformation in hexagonal close-packed (hcp) titanium, the twin-twin interaction structure has a profound influence on mechanical properties. In this paper, the twin-twin interaction structures of the {11$\bar{2}$2} contraction twin in cold-rolled commercial purity titanium were studied by using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Formation of the {11$\bar{2}$2} twin variants was found to deviate the rank of Schmid factor, and the non-Schmid behavior was explained by the high-angle grain boundary nucleation mechanism. All the observed twin-twin pairs manifested a quilted-looking structure, which consists of the incoming twins being arrested by the obstacle twins. Furthermore, the quilted-looking {11$\bar{2}$2} twin-twin boundary was revealed by TEM and high resolution TEM observations. De-twinning, lattice rotation and curved twin boundary were observed in the obstacle twin due to the twin-twin reaction with the impinging twin. A twin-twin interaction mechanism for the {11$\bar{2}$2} twin variants was proposed in terms of the dislocation dissociation, which will enrich the understanding for the propagation of twins and twinning-induced hardening in hcp metals and alloys.

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Fabrication of flower-like mesoporous TiO2 hierarchical spheres with ordered stratified structure as an anode for lithium-ion batteries
Yujie Zheng, Bingjie Liu, Pei Cao, Hui Huang, Jing Zhang, Guowei Zhou
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (4): 667-673.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.10.028
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In this study, flower-like mesoporous TiO2 hierarchical spheres (FMTHSs) with ordered stratified structure and TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs) were synthesized via a facile solvothermal route and an etching reaction. Multilamellar vesicles (MTSVs) and unilamellar TiO2/SiO2 vesicles (UTSVs) were prepared using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide as structure-directing agents under different solvothermal conditions. FMTHSs and TNPs were obtained from the etching reactions of MTSVs and UTSVs, respectively, in an alkaline system. FMTHSs display flower-like, ordered stratified structures on each petal. The thickness of the ordered stratified structure is approximately 3-6 nm, and the number of layers is approximately 2-4. The FMTHSs2 electrode exhibits the first discharge capacity of 212.4 mA h g-1 at 0.2 C, which is higher than that of TNPs electrode (167.6 mA h g-1). The discharge specific capacity of FMTHSs2 electrode after 200 cycles at 1 C is 105.9 mA h g-1, which is higher than that of TNPs electrode (52.2 mA h g-1) after the same number of cycles. The outstanding performance of FMTHSs2 electrode is attributed to the advantages of FMTHSs. In particular, their own stratified structure can provide additional active sites for reactions. The hierarchical structure can provide short diffusion length for Li+, large electrolyte-electrode contact area, and superior accommodation of the strain of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation.

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Ionic liquids for electrochemical energy storage devices applications
Huan Liu, Haijun Yu
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (4): 674-686.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.10.007
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Ionic liquids, defined here as room-temperature molten salts, composed mainly of organic cations and (in)organic anions ions that may undergo almost unlimited structural variations with melting points below 100 °C. They offer a unique series of physical and chemical properties that make them extreme important candidates for several energy applications, especially for clean and sustainable energy storage and conversion materials and devices. Ionic liquids exhibit high thermal and electrochemical stability coupled with low volatility, create the possibility of designing appropriate electrolytes for different type batteries and supercapacitors. Herein, varieties of ionic liquids applications are reviewed on their utilization as electrolytes for Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries, Li-O2(air) batteries, Li-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries, supercapacitors and as precursors to prepare and modify the electrode materials, meanwhile, some important research results in recent years are specially introduced, and the perspective on novel application of ionic liquids is also discussed.

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A modified θ projection model for constant load creep curves-II. Application of creep life prediction
Chao Fu, Yadong Chen, Xiaofei Yuan, Sammy Tin, Stoichko Antonov, Koichi Yagi, Qiang Feng
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (4): 687-694.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.09.035
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To minimize the deviation of the predicted creep curves obtained under constant load conditions by the original θ projection model, a new modified version that can be expressed by ε=θ11-e-θ2t+θ3eθ4eθ5εt-1, was derived and experimentally validated in our last study. In the present study, the predictive capability of the modified θ projection model was investigated by comparing the simulated and experimentally determined creep curves of K465 and DZ125 superalloys over a range of temperatures and stresses. Furthermore, the linear relationship between creep temperature and initial stress was extended to the 5-parameter model. The results indicated that the modified model could be used as a creep life prediction method, as it described the creep curve shape and resulted in predictions that fall within a specified error interval. Meanwhile, this modified model provides a more accurate way of describing creep curves under constant load conditions. The limitations and future direction of the modified model were also discussed. In addition, this modified θ projection model shows great potential for the evaluation and assessment of the service safety of structural materials used in components governed by creep deformation.

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Electrochemical property of multi-layer anode supported solid oxide fuel cell fabricated through sequential tape-casting and co-firing
Xiaoyang Chen, Weijie Ni, Xiaojia Du, Zaihong Sun, Tenglong Zhu, Qin Zhong, Minfang Han
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (4): 695-701.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.10.015
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In this work, a multi-layer anode supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is designed and successfully prepared through sequential tape casting and co-firing. The single cell is consisted of NiO-3YSZ (3YSZ: 3 mol.% yttria doped zirconia) anode support, NiO-8YSZ (8YSZ: 8 mol.% yttria stabilized zirconia) anode functional layer, dense 8YSZ electrolyte layer, and porous 3YSZ cathode scaffold layer with infiltrated La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ cathode. The clear interfaces and good contacts between each layer, without element inter-diffusion being observed, suggest that this sequential tape casting and co-firing is a feasible and successful route for anode supported single cell fabrication. This cell exhibits remarkable high open circuit voltage of 1.097 V at 800°C under room temperature humidified hydrogen, with highly dense and gastight electrolyte layer. It provides a power density of 360 mW/cm2 under operation voltage of 0.75 V at 800°C and a stable operation of ~110 h at 750°C under current density of -300 mA/cm2. Furthermore, this cell also presents encouraging electrochemical responses under various anode hydrogen partial pressures and maintains high power output at low fuel concentrations.

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Electrical characteristics and detailed interfacial structures of Ag/Ni metallization on polycrystalline thermoelectric SnSe
Kim Yeongseon, Jin Younghwan, Yoon Giwan, Chung In, Yoon Hana, Yoo Chung-Yul, Hyun Park Sang
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (5): 711-718.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.11.020
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SnSe is a promising thermoelectric material with a high figure of merit in single crystal form, which has stimulated continuous research on polycrystalline SnSe. In this study, we investigated a metallization techniques for polycrystalline SnSe to achieve highly efficient and practical SnSe thermoelectric modules. The Ag/Ni metallization layers were formed on pristine polycrystalline SnSe using various deposition technique: sputter coating Ni, powder Ni and foil Ni by spark plasma sintering. Structural analysis demonstrated that the microstructure and contact resistance could be different according to the metallization process, despite using the same metals. The Ag/Ni metallization layer using foil Ni acted as an effective diffusion barrier and minimized electrical contact resistance (2.3×10-4 Ω cm2). A power loss in the thermoelectric module of only 5% was demonstrated using finite element simulation.

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Synthesis of ultra-narrow PbTe nanorods with extremely strong quantum confinement
Lu Han, Honghua Fang, Chunmiao Du, Jianxia Sun, Youyong Li, Wanli Ma
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (5): 703-710.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.10.019
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Monodisperse, high-quality, ultra-narrow PbTe nanorods were synthesized for the first time in a one-pot, hot-injection reaction using trans-2-decenoic acid as the agents for lead precursors and tris(diethylamino)phosphine telluride together with free tris(diethylamino)phosphine as the telluride precursors. High monomer reactivity, rapid nucleation and fast growth rate derived from the new precursors led to the anisotropic growth of PbTe nanocrystals at low reaction temperatures (<150°C). In addition, the aspect ratio of PbTe nanorods could be largely adjusted from 4 to 15 by tuning the Pb to Te precursor molar ratio and reaction temperatures. Moreover, the synthesized ultra-narrow PbTe nanorods exhibited extremely strong quantum confinement and presented unique optical properties. We revealed that the diameter and length of PbTe nanorods could significantly affect their optical properties, which potentially offer them new opportunities in the application of optoelectronic and thermoelectric devices and make them desired subjects for multiple exciton generation and other fundamental physics studies.

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Plasma spray of biofunctional (Mg, Sr)-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings for titanium alloy implants
Lei Cao, Ihsan Ullah, Na Li, Shiyu Niu, Rujie Sun, Dandan Xia, Rui Yang, Xing Zhang
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (5): 719-726.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.10.020
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Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been widely utilized in load-bearing titanium alloy implants. In this study, Mg, Sr co-substituted HA ((Mg, Sr)-HA) nano-scale powders have been synthesized, which are further used to prepare (Mg, Sr)-HA coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloys in order to improve the biological functions. The average size of (Mg, Sr)-HA nano particles is 75nm. The average bonding strength for (Mg, Sr)-HA coating and samples after heat treatment at 500 °C or 600 °C for 3 h are 26.17 ± 2.11 MPa, 36.07 ± 4.48 MPa and 37.07±2.95 MPa, respectively. There is a significantly increase of bonding strength likely due to low residual stress after heated treatment. MC3T3-E1 cells show a high proliferation rate when cultured with (Mg, Sr)-HA coating extract compared to the normal culture medium, which also exhibit large extension and deposition of extracellular matrices when adhered on the coating surfaces. Thus, these (Mg, Sr)-HA coatings show high bonding strength and improved biological functions, which offer promising future applications in the fields of orthopedics and dentistry.

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Controllable phase transformation and improved thermal stability of nickel on tungsten substrate by electrodeposition
Minjie Xu, Chao Hu, Haiyan Xiang, Haozi Lu, Travis Shihao Hu, Bonian Hu, Song Liu, Gang Yu
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (5): 727-732.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.11.002
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Present study reports a controllable phase transformation of nickel (Ni) from amorphous to cubic crystal structures on tungsten (W) substrate by electrodeposition. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to characterize the microstructure, micro-constituents and surface morphology of as-prepared Ni. The microstructure of Ni was strongly affected by the applied overpotential and deposition time. It is demonstrated that by controlling these two parameters either amorphous or cubic crystal structure of Ni on the W substrate could be obtained. The crystallization mechanism is discussed based on Gibbs crystal growth theory and Ostwald’s rule. It is concluded that W substrate, acting as a heat sink, can effectively promote the thermal stability of amorphous Ni, based on the data from differential scanning calorimetry and Kissinger’s model. This work contributes to the elucidation of the crystallization mechanism of Ni on W powder substrates, and proves that, better than alloying with other elements, incorporating powder substrates will significantly improve the crystallization temperature, hence the thermostability of amorphous Ni.

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Friction stir spot welding of SPCC low carbon steel plates at extremely low welding temperature
Y.F. Sun, H. Fujii, Y. Sato, Y. Morisada
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2019, 35 (5): 733-741.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.11.011
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Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) was applied to 2.0 mm thick steel plate cold-rolled commercial (SPCC) low carbon steel plates at a very low rotation speed that ranged from 5 to 50 rpm, which was much lower than that generally used for the conventional FSSW technique. Due to the very low heat input, the welding processes could therefore be completed at a peak welding temperature below 160 °C. As a result, a significantly refined microstructure with an average grain size of about 0.41 μm was formed in the stir zone of the joints and the J1{0-11}<-211> and J2{1-10}<-1-12> shear textures were the dominant components, which are different from the D1{11-2}<111> and D2{-1-12}<111> shear textures formed in the conventional FSSW joints. In addition, no heat affected zone could be detected along the cross-sectional plane of the joints. Although a few void-like non-bonded areas were still observed along the interface between the upper and lower steel plates, the shear tensile loads of the joints increased to about 10.0 kN when welded at a condition of 8 t, 20 rpm and 30 s, and the joints fractured through the plug failure mode.

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