Strted in 1985 Monthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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Bending behavior of as-cast and annealed ZrCuNiAl bulk metallic glass
Huang Yongjiang, Ning Zhiliang, Shen Zhe, Liang Weizhong, Sun Haicao, Sun Jianfei
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (10): 1153-1158.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.07.002
Abstract   HTML PDF (370KB)  

Here ZrCuNiAl bulk metallic glass samples were annealed below its glass transition temperature. The bending behaviors and thermal properties of the as-cast and the annealed samples were studied. The increase of annealing time leads to the transition from ductile to more brittle behavior during bending tests. Meanwhile, prolonging the annealing causes a gradual decrease in the free volume content. Based on free volume theory, the change in the microstructure and mechanical properties induced by annealing treatment has been interpreted in detail.

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Maintaining nano-lamellar microstructure in friction stir welding (FSW) of accumulative roll bonded (ARB) Cu-Nb nano-lamellar composites (NLC)
Schneider Judy, Cobb Josef, S. Carpenter John, A. Mara Nathan
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (1): 92-101.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.10.016
Abstract   HTML PDF (3604KB)  

Accumulative roll bonded (ARB) Copper Niobium (Cu-Nb) nano-lamellar composite (NLC) panels were friction stir welded (FSWed) to evaluate the ability to join panels while retaining the nano-lamellar structure. During a single pass of the friction stir welding (FSW) process, the nano-lamellar structure of the parent material (PM) was retained but was observed to fragment into equiaxed grains during the second pass. FSW has been modeled as a severe deformation process in which the material is subjected to an instantaneous high shear strain rate followed by extreme shear strains. The loss of the nano-lamellar layers was attributed to the increased strain and longer time at temperature resulting from the second pass of the FSW process. Kinematic modeling was used to predict the global average shear strain and shear strain rates experienced by the ARB material during the FSW process. The results of this study indicate that through careful selection of FSW parameters, the nano-lamellar structure and its associated higher strength can be maintained using FSW to join ARB NLC panels.

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Effect of rolling deformation on microstructure and texture of spray-deposited magnesium alloy containing Mg-Nd-Zn typed LPSO
Li Zhenliang, Liu Fei, Yuan Aiping, Duan Baoyu, Li Yiming, Li Xiaowei
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (7): 630-636.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.02.003
Abstract   HTML PDF (3352KB)  

Billets of Mg-9Al-3Zn-1Mn-6Ca-2Nd alloy were produced by spray-deposition (the Osprey process). Effect of rolling deformation (T = 350 °C, ε = 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively) on microstructure and texture evolution of the Mg-9Al-3Zn-1Mn-6Ca-2Nd alloy was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results show that at pass reduction of ε = 5%, 10% and 15% at 350 °C respectively, Mg-Nd-Zn typed 24R-LPSO structure was formed in (Ca, Nd)Al2 phase (C15 Laves phase). With the increase in pass reduction (i.e. 5%, 10% and 15%), the texture pole density level of basal texture (0002) changed little and pyramidal texture (101?3) were increased. In contrast, those of prismatic texture {101?0} <112?0> were increased initially and followed by a reduction, indicating texture randomization in the grain-refined Mg alloy. The combined contribution of LPSO phase and C15 phase was key to randomize the texture of the grain-refined Mg alloy. It was noted that the microcosmic plastic deformation of LPSO phase and nanometer-sized dispersed C15 phase impeded dislocation movement, led to dislocation tangles, and facilitated recrystallization.

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Strong enhancement on dye photocatalytic degradation by ball-milled TiO2: A study of cationic and anionic dyes
Jia Z., La L.B.T., Zhang W.C., Liang S.X., Jiang B., Xie S.K., Habibi D., Zhang L.C.
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (8): 856-863.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.02.006
Abstract   HTML PDF (2966KB)  

TiO2 particles with desirable properties were produced by undergoing specific durations of ball milling. Characterizations of the TiO2 particles before and after ball milling were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), particle size analysis, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The equilibrium adsorption data were well fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Compared to the as-received TiO2 (mean particle size d50 = 0.78 μm, specific surface area = 88.17 m2 g-1, pore volume = 0.41 cm3 g-1), the 60 min ball-milled TiO2 (d50 = 0.55 μm, specific surface area = 99.48 m2 g-1, pore volume = 0.48 cm3 g-1) enhanced the adsorption quantity of congo red and methylene blue from 10.4 mg g-1 to 13.6 mg g-1, and from 17.0 mg g-1 to 22.2 mg g-1, respectively; and also improved the kinetic rates from k = 0.1325 to 0.2193, and k = 0.0944 to 0.1553, respectively. Dye adsorption and degradation efficiency of congo red was enhanced in acidic pH range (2-5.14), and methylene blue was enhanced in alkaline pH range (7.58-12).

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Comparative study of mechanical and wear behavior of Cu/WS2 composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering and hot pressing
Wang Qunchang, Chen Minghui, Shan Zhongmao, Sui Chengguo, Zhang Lin, Zhu Shenglong, Wang Fuhui
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (11): 1416-1423.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.06.014
Abstract   HTML PDF (4421KB)  

The mechanical and wear behavior of copper-tungsten disulfide (Cu/WS2) composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and hot pressing (HP) was investigated, comparatively. Results indicated that the addition of lubricant WS2 substantially reduced wear rate of the Cu matrix composites fabricated by SPS, and the optimum content of WS2 is 20?wt% with regard to the wear behavior. However, it affected a little to the wear rate while dramatically decreased the friction coefficient of the composite fabricated by HP. This difference in friction behavior of the self-lubricating composites fabricated by the two techniques was closely related to their different mechanical properties. Severe interfacial reaction occurred during spark plasma sintering, leading to brittle phase formation at interface.

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Shear anisotropy: Tuning high temperature metal hexaborides from soft to extremely hard
Zhou Yanchun, Dai Fuzhi, Xiang Huimin, Liu Bin, Feng Zhihai
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (11): 1371-1377.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.01.022
Abstract   HTML PDF (1195KB)  

Easy machining into sharp lending edge, nose tip and complex shape components plays a pivotal role in the application of ultrahigh temperature ceramics in hypersonic vehicles, wherein low and controllable hardness is a necessary parameter to ensure the easy machinability. However, the mechanism that driving the hardness of metal hexaborides is not clear. Here, using a combination of the empirical hardness model for polycrystalline materials and density functional theory investigation, the hardness dependence on shear anisotropic factors of high temperature metal hexaborides has been established. It has come to light that through controlling the shear anisotropic factors the hardness of polycrystalline metal hexaborides can be tailored from soft and ductile to extremely hard and brittle, which is underpinned by the degree of chemical bonding anisotropy, i.e., the difference of B-B bond within the B6 octahedron and that connecting the B6 octahedra.

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Nitrogen-doped graphene/carbon nanohorns composite as a high-performance supercapacitor electrode
Lin Xiao-Qiang, Wang Wen-Dong, Lü Qiu-Feng, Jin Yan-Qiao, Lin Qilang, Liu Rui
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (11): 1339-1345.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.06.006
Abstract   HTML PDF (2302KB)  

Nitrogen-doped graphene/carbon nanohorns composite (NGLC) was prepared by one-step co-pyrolysis of graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns (CNHs), urea, and lignosulfonate. CNHs as spacers were inserted into graphene nanosheets. The introduction of CNHs and the loosened nano-structure of NGLC make it achieve a high specific capacitance of 363 F g-1 at a discharge current density of 1 A g-1, and NGLC exhibits an ultrahigh stability of 93.5% capacitance retention ratio after 5000 cycles. The outstanding comprehensive electrochemical performance of NGLC could meet the need of the future acted as an efficient supercapacitor electrode material.

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Spray granulation of Fe and C nanoparticles and their impedance match for microwave absorption
Huang H., Gao Y., Fang C.F., Wu A.M., Dong X.L., Kim B.S., Byun J.H., Zhang G.F., Zhou D.Y.
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (3): 496-502.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.01.010
Abstract   HTML PDF (2687KB)  

The microwave absorbents of Fe and C nanoparticles as magnetic loss and dielectric loss material respectively were composited with the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as binder by spray granulation method. The electromagnetic parameters of Fe and C composite particles were analyzed by vector network. The complex permittivity and magnetic permeability of Fe and C composite particles matched well with increasing C nanoparticle content, and then the microwave loss property was improved. A minimum reflection loss (RL) of -42.7 dB at 3.68 GHz for a composite with 4.6 mm in thickness can be obtained when the content ratio of the C nanoparticles, the modified Fe nanoparticles and the PVA is 21:49:30 (Sample 3).

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Effect of Squeeze Casting on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al-xSi Alloys
Li Runxia, Liu Lanji, Zhang Lijun, Sun Jihong, Shi Yuanji, Yu Baoyi
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (4): 404-410.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.02.004
Abstract   HTML PDF (3420KB)  

The effect of squeeze casting on microstructure and mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al-xSi alloys (x = 15, 17.5, 22 wt%) was investigated in this study. Results show that microstructure of the hypereutectic Al-xSi alloys was obviously improved by squeeze casting. The amount of coarse primary Si phase decreased, while that of fine primary α-Al dendrites increased with the increase of squeeze casting pressure. Due to the decrease of coarse primary Si particles, cracking of the matrix was reduced, whilst the fine microstructure, and mechanical properties of the squeeze casting alloys were improved. Compared with gravity casting alloys, mechanical properties of the hypereutectic Al-xSi alloys solidified at 600 MPa were improved significantly. Hardness of the squeeze casting hypereutectic Al-(15, 17.5, 22 wt%) Si alloys was improved by 15.91%, 12.23%, 17.48%, ultimate tensile strength was improved by 37.85%, 32.27%, 22.74%, and elongation was improved by 55.83%, 167.86%, 126.76%, respectively. Due to the uniform distribution of Si phases in squeeze casting Al-xSi alloys, their wear resistance was markedly enhanced.

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Mechanical Property, Oxidation and Ablation Resistance of C/C-ZrB2-ZrC-SiC Composite Fabricated by Polymer Infiltration and Pyrolysis with Preform of Cf/ZrB2
Huang Dong, Zhang Mingyu, Huang Qizhong, Wang Liping, Tong Kai
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (5): 481-486.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.09.003
Abstract   HTML PDF (3317KB)  

C/C-ZrB2-ZrC-SiC composites were fabricated by polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) with a preform of Cf/ZrB2. The carbon fibers and the resin carbon were coated with ceramic layer after PIP in the composites. The composite presents a pseudo-plastic fracture due to deflection of cracks and pullout of fibers. The composite has a higher bending strength by this method in comparison with the conventional PIP process due to fewer heat treatment cycles. The static oxidation test shows that the mass loss of the composites is no more than 1% after 20 min oxidation at 1100 °C. The “core-shell” structure between ZrC-SiC ceramic and other phases plays a positive role in preventing the inward diffusion of oxygen. The ablation resistance of the C/C-ZrB2-ZrC-SiC composite samples was tested using a plasma generator. After ablation for 120 s, the mass and linear ablation rates of the composites are 4.65 mg cm-2 s-1 and 2.46 μm s-1, respectively. The short carbon layer shows a better ablation resistance than the nonwoven carbon fabric layer after the ceramic coating is peeled off because of its higher ceramic content.

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Controlling molecular weight of naphthalenediimide-based polymer acceptor P(NDI2OD-T2) for high performance all-polymer solar cells
Lei Yu, Sun Jianxia, Yuan Jianyu, Gu Jinan, Ding Guanqun, Ma Wanli
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (5): 411-417.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.028
Abstract   HTML PDF (2058KB)  

A widely-used naphthalenediimide (NDI) based electron acceptor P(NDI2OD-T2) with different number-average molecular weight (Mn) of 38 (N2200L), 56 (N2200M), 102 (N2200H) kDa were successfully prepared. The effect of molecular-weight on the performance of all-polymer solar cells based on Poly(5-(5-(4,8-bis(5-decylthiophen-2-yl)-6-methylbenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithophen-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-6,7-difluoro-8-(5-methylthiophen-2-yl)-2,3-bis(3-(octyloxy)phenyl)quinoxaline) (P2F-DE):N2200 was systematically investigated. The results reveal that N2200 with increased Mn show enhanced intermolecular interactions, resulting in improved light absorption and electron mobility. However, the strong aggregation trend of N2200H can cause unfavorable morphology for exciton dissociation and carrier transport. The blend film using N2200 with moderate Mn actually develops more ideal phase segregation for efficient charge separation and transport, leading to balanced electron/hole mobility and less carrier recombination. Consequently, all-polymer solar cells employing P2F-DE as the electron donor and N2200M as the electron acceptor show the highest efficiency of 4.81%, outperforming those using N2200L (3.07%) and N2200H (3.92%). Thus, the Mn of the polymer acceptor plays an important role in all-polymer solar cells, which allows it to be an effective parameter for the adjustment of the device morphology and efficiency.

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Grain refinement of non-magnetic austenitic steels during asymmetrical hot rolling process
Li Changsheng, Ma Biao, Song Yanlei, Zheng Jianjun, Wang Jikai
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (12): 1572-1576.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.06.002
Abstract   HTML PDF (1933KB)  

Asymmetrical hot rolling (ASHR) was proposed to acquire productive grain refinement for Fe-20Mn-4Al-0.3C and Fe-18Cr-18Mn-0.5N non-magnetic austenitic steels. The intensive additional shear deformation caused by ASHR promotes the nucleation of recrystallization and grain refining of steel plates. With the speed ratio of 1.2, the austenitic grains were refined to ~5 μm on the surface, the recrystallization fraction was enhanced to ~34.7%, and the thickness of fine-grained surface layer increases to ~450 μm for Fe-20Mn-4Al-0.3C steel. The Fe-18Cr-18Mn-0.5N steel also exhibited an effective surface grain refinement with an average size of ~3 μm, and the recrystallization fraction reached ~76.9% at the speed ratio of 1.15.

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In-situ synthesis of Al76.8Fe24 complex metallic alloy phase in Al-based hybrid composite
Zhao Ke, Cao Baobao, Liu Jinling, Wang Yiguang, An Linan
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (10): 1177-1181.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.05.009
Abstract   HTML PDF (1744KB)  

The complex metallic alloy (CMA), Al76.8Fe24, was in-situ synthesized in the Al-based hybrid composite by powder metallurgy technique. The structural analysis by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the Al76.8Fe24 CMA phase was formed by diffusion of Fe atoms into the Al matrix during the sintering stage. The formation of the CMA phase was mainly determined by the sintering temperature which was just above the eutectic temperature of Al-Fe. Moreover, the fully dense Al-based hybrid composite was obtained and exhibited ultrahigh strength ~1100 MPa, indicating that this method is expected to be effective in producing CMA particle reinforced Al-based hybrid composite.

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Diamond/β-SiC film as adhesion-enhanced interlayer for top diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide substrate
Tian Qingquan, Huang Nan, Yang Bing, Zhuang Hao, Wang Chun, Zhai Zhaofeng, Li Junhao, Jia Xinyi, Liu Lusheng, Jiang Xin
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (10): 1097-1106.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.06.005
Abstract   HTML PDF (752KB)  

In present work, diamond/β-SiC composite interlayers were deposited on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-6%Co) substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) using H2, CH4 and tetramethylsilane (TMS) gas mixtures. The microstructure, chemical bonding, element distribution and crystalline quality of the composite interlayers were systematically characterized by means of field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscropy (TEM). The influences of varying TMS flow rates on the diamond/β-SiC composite interlayers were investigated. Through changing the TMS flow rates in the reaction gas, the volume fraction of β-SiC in the composite interlayers were tunable in the range of 12.0%-68.1%. XPS and EPMA analysis reveal that the composite interlayers are composed of C, Si element with little cobalt distribution. The better crystallinity of the diamond in the composite is characterized based on the Raman spectroscopy, which are helpful to deposit top diamond coatings with high quality. Then, the adhesion of top diamond coatings were estimated using Rockwell C indentation analysis, revealing that the adhesion of top diamond coatings on the WC-6%Co substrates can be improved by the interlayers with the diamond/β-SiC composite structures. Comprehensive TEM interfacial analysis exhibits that the cobalt diffusion is weak from WC-6%Co substrate to the composite interlayer. The homogeneous microcrystalline diamond coatings with the most excellent adhesion can be fabricated on the substrates with the composite interlayer with the β-SiC/diamond ratio of about 45%. The composite structures are appropriate for the application in high-efficiency mechanical tool as a buffer layer for the deposition of the diamond coating.

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Effects of Load on Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Mg-Gd-Zn-Zr Alloys
Zhang Jie, Zhang Xiaobo, Liu Qinghua, Yang Shujie, Wang Zhangzhong
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (7): 645-651.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.11.014
Abstract   HTML PDF (5144KB)  

Dry sliding wear tests on as-cast and T6-treated Mg-3Gd-1Zn-0.4Zr (wt%, GZ31K) and Mg-6Gd-1Zn-0.4Zr (wt%, GZ61K) alloys were performed using a ball-on-disk configuration at room temperature. Friction coefficient and wear rate of the alloys were measured under three different applied loads (50 N, 100 N, and 200 N, respectively). Worn surface morphologies were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). It is found that the friction coefficient of the alloys decreases with increasing load, except the as-cast GZ61K. The wear rates of the as-cast Mg-Gd-Zn-Zr alloys increase with the increase of the load. However, the wear rates of the T6-treated Mg-Gd-Zn-Zr alloys first increase because of the participation of a large amount of needle-like precipitates, but then decline due to obvious work hardening. The wear mechanisms of abrasion, plastic deformation, oxidation, adhesion and delamination are detected. Abrasion dominates the wear mechanism under the low load; whereas, adhesion is the main wear mechanism under intermediate load, and plastic deformation has great effect on the wear rate under high applied load.

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Atmospheric Corrosion of Copper Exposed in a Simulated Coastal-Industrial Atmosphere
Pan Chen, Lv Wangyan, Wang Zhenyao, Su Wei, Wang Chuan, Liu Shinian
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (6): 587-595.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.024
Abstract   HTML PDF (3611KB)  

The corrosion behavior of copper exposed in a simulated coastal-industrial atmosphere has been investigated using weight loss measurement, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, potentiodynamic polarization and in-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with micro-distance electrodes. The results show that corrosion kinetics follows the empirical equation D = Atn. The main corrosion products are composed of Cu2O, Cu2Cl(OH)3 and Cu4Cl2(OH)6. A two-layer structure comprising a loose outer layer and a compact inner layer forms the corrosion products during corrosion process. SO2 has been found to promote the formation of Cu4Cl2(OH)6.

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A review of friction stir welding of steels: Tool, material flow, microstructure, and properties
F.C.Liu, Y.Hovanski, M.P.Miles, C.D.Sorensen, T.W.Nelson
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (1): 39-57.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.10.024
Abstract   HTML PDF (10692KB)  

Considerable progress has been achieved in friction stir welding (FSW) of steels in every aspect of tool fabrication, microstructure control and properties evaluation in the past two decades. With the development of reliable welding tools and precise control systems, FSW of steels has reached a new level of technical maturity. High-quality, long welds can be produced in many engineering steels. Compared to traditional fusion welding, FSW exhibits unique advantages producing joints with better properties. As a result of active control of the welding temperature and/or cooling rate, FSW has the capability of fabricating steel joints with excellent toughness and strength. For example, unfavorable phase transformations that usually occur during traditional welding can be avoided and favorable phase fractions in advanced steels can be maintained in the weld zone thus avoiding the typical property degradations associated with fusion welding. If phase transformations do occur during FSW of thick steels, optimization of microstructure and properties can be attained by controlling the heat input and post-weld cooling rate.

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Corrosion fatigue behavior of friction stir processed interstitial free steel
Wang Wen, Xu Ruiqi, Hao Yaxin, Wang Qiang, Yu Liangliang, Che Qianying, Cai Jun, Wang Kuaishe, Ma Zongyi
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (1): 148-156.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.013
Abstract   HTML PDF (5707KB)  

In this study, interstitial free (IF) steel plates were subjected to double-sided friction stir processing (FSP). The fine-grained structure with an average grain size of about 12 μm was obtained in the processed zone (PZ) with a thickness of about 2.5 mm. The yield strength (325 MPa) and ultimate tensile strength (451 MPa) of FSP IF steel were significantly higher than those of base material (BM) (192 and 314 MPa), while the elongation (67.5%) almost remained unchanged compared with the BM (66.2%). The average microhardness value of the PZ was about 130 HV, 1.3 times higher than that of the BM. In addition, the FSP IF steel showed a more positive corrosion potential and lower corrosion current density than the BM, exhibiting lower corrosion tendency and corrosion rates in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. Furthermore, FSP IF steel exhibited higher fatigue life than the BM both in air and NaCl solution. Corrosion fatigue fracture surfaces of FSP IF steel mainly exhibited a typical transgranular fracture with fatigue striations, while the BM predominantly presented an intergranular fracture. Enhanced corrosion fatigue performance was mainly attributed to the increased resistance of nucleation and growth of fatigue cracks. The corrosion fatigue mechanism was primarily controlled by anodic dissolution under the combined effect of cyclic stress and corrosive solution.

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Syntheses and catalytic applications of the high-N-content, the cup-stacking and the macroscopic nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes
Wang Qi, Wang Haihua, Zhang Yajie, Wen Guodong, Liu Hongyang, Su Dangsheng
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (8): 843-849.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.01.011
Abstract   HTML PDF (2291KB)  

The high-N-content, the cup-stacking and the macroscopic nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) were synthesized via an easily manufactured catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method. Nitrogen physisorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the as-obtained NCNTs. High reaction temperatures were found to be the key point to the formation of inner-cup-stacking NCNTs. However, the synthesis of the outer-cup-stacking NCNT needs special demands not only to the reaction temperature but also to the catalyst and the carrier gas. The possibility of CO oxidation by NCNT was proved to be very small, and the outer-cup-stacking NCNT showed obvious advantage in the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of butene to butadiene compared to a bamboo-like NCNT with an even higher N content.

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Copper oxide nanoparticles-loaded zeolite and its characteristics and antibacterial activities
A. Alswat Abdullah, Bin Ahmad Mansor, Zobir Hussein Mohd, Azowa Ibrahim Nor, A. Saleh Tawfik
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (8): 889-898.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.03.015
Abstract   HTML PDF (3950KB)  

In the present work, a simple and green co-precipitation method was used to prepare copper oxide-zeolite nanocomposites (CuO-zeolite NCs). The weight ratio (1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 wt%) of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) loaded into zeolite was investigated to obtain the optimum CuO distribution for antibacterial activities. The prepared CuO-zeolite NCs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed a uniform surface morphology of the CuO-zeolite NCs. The UV-vis spectrum of NCs showed absorption peaks between 230 and 280 nm for nano-CuO in the XRD patterns, and new peaks appeared between (36.56°-38.83°) related to the CuO. At weight ratio less than 10 wt%, the CuO nanoparticles loaded to the zeolite exhibited spherical shapes with average particle diameter of 6.5 nm measured by TEM and XRD. Antibacterial activities were tested against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The obtained results showed that, CuO-zeolite NCs with 8 wt% CuO nanoparticles had the highest antibacterial activities against Bacillus Subtilis B29 and Salmonella Choleraesuis ATCC 10708, which can be attributed to the good dispersion of CuO NPs on the zeolite surface.

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Electrical-field induced nonlinear conductive behavior in dense zirconia ceramic
Gao Yan, Liu Fangzhou, Liu Dianguang, Liu Jinling, Wang Yiguang, An Linan
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (8): 897-900.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.03.005
Abstract   HTML PDF (617KB)  

The effect of the applied electric field on the conductive behavior of zirconia ceramics is studied by measuring its initial current-voltage curve at various temperatures. The results show that when the field strength is higher than the threshold for flash-sintering, the curves exhibit a nonlinear behavior by having an additional current on top of the linear current according to Ohm’s law. Analyzing its transport behavior reveals that the additional current density is due to the extra oxygen vacancies induced by the electric field. The formation rate of the extra vacancies and associated current was related to the field strength.

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Prediction of Dendrite Orientation and Stray Grain Distribution in Laser Surface-melted Single Crystal Superalloy
Wang Guowei, Liang Jingjing, Zhou Yizhou, Jin Tao, Sun Xiaofeng, Hu Zhuangqi
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (5): 499-506.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.05.007
Abstract   HTML PDF (3858KB)  

A vectorization analysis technique for crystal growth and microstructure development in single-crystal weld was developed in our previous work. Based on the vectorization method, crystal growth and stray grain distribution in laser surface remelting of single crystal superalloy CMSX-4 were investigated in combination of simulations with experimental observations. The energy distribution of laser was taken into consideration in this research. The experimental results demonstrate that the simulation model applies well in the prediction of dendrite growth direction. Moreover, the prediction of stray grain distribution works well except for the region of dendrites growing along the [100] direction.

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Superplastic behavior of an ultrafine-grained Mg-13Zn-1.55Y alloy with a high volume fraction of icosahedral phases prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling
Kwak T.Y., Kim W.J.
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (9): 919-925.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.05.003
Abstract   HTML PDF (3400KB)  

An ultrafine-grained (UFG) Mg-13Zn-1.55Y alloy (ZW132) with a high volume fraction (7.4%) of icosahedral phase (I-phase, Mg3Zn6Y) particles was prepared by applying high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) on the cast microstructure following homogenization. The alloy exhibited excellent superplasticity at low temperatures (tensile elongations of 455% and 1021% 473 K- 10-3 s-1 and 523 K- 10-3 s-1, respectively). Compared with UFG Mg-9.25Zn-1.66Y alloy (ZW92) with a lower volume fraction of I-phase particles (4.1%), which was prepared using the same processing routes, the UFG ZW132 alloy exhibited a higher thermal stability of grain size. Rapid grain coarsening, however, occurred at temperatures beyond 523 K, leading to a loss of superplasticity. The high-temperature deformation behavior of the HRDSR-processed ZW132 alloy could be well described assuming that the mechanisms of grain boundary sliding and dislocation climb creep competed with each other and considering that the grain-size was largely increased by accelerated grain growth at the temperatures beyond 523 K.

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Microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior of Ni-based single crystal superalloy joint brazed with mixed powder at elevated temperature
Wang Guanglei, Sun Yuan, Wang Xinguang, Liu Jide, Liu Jinlai, Li Jinguo, Yu Jinjiang, Zhou Yizhou, Jin Tao, Sun Xudong, Sun Xiaofeng
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (10): 1219-1226.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.01.027
Abstract   HTML PDF (461KB)  

Brazing of a Ni-based single crystal superalloy has been investigated with the additive Ni-based superalloy and filler Ni-Cr-W-B alloy at 1260 °C, and attentions were paid to the microstructure evolution during brazing and the stress-rupture behavior at 980 °C of such brazed joints after homogenization. Microstructure in the brazed joint generally includes brazing alloy zone (BAZ), isothermally solidified zone (ISZ) and diffusion affected zone (DAZ). Microstructure evolution during this brazing process is discussed at the heating stage, the holding stage and the cooling stage respectively, according to the diffusion path of B atoms. Initially well-distributed γ/γ′ microstructure in the homogenized bonded zone after heat treatment and substantial γ′ rafts enhance the post-brazed joint to obtain a stress-rupture lifetime of more than 120 h at 980 °C/250 MPa. On the other hand, the decreased stress-rupture behavior of post-brazed joint, compared with parenting material, is ascribed to the presence of inside brazing porosity and stray grain boundary, which not only reduces the effective loading-carrying area but also offers preferential sites for creep vacancy aggregation to further soften stray grain boundary. And finally an early fracture of these post-brazed joints through the intergranular microholes aggregation and growth mode under this testing condition was observed.

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Intermetallic Compounds in the Banded Structure and Their Effect on Mechanical Properties of Al/Mg Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding Joints
Shi Hui, Chen Ke, Liang Zhiyuan, Dong Fengbo, Yu Taiwu, Dong Xianping, Zhang Lanting, Shan Aidang
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (4): 359-366.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.05.006
Abstract   HTML PDF (3474KB)  

Dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) between aluminum and magnesium alloy was performed, using various tool rotational speed (TRS) at a fixed travel speed, with tool offset to aluminum to investigate the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in the banded structure (BS) zone and their effect on mechanical properties. Large quantities of IMCs, in the form of alternating bands of particles or lamellae, were found in the BS zone, where drastic material intermixing occurred during FSW. The BS microstructural characters in terms of the morphology of the bands and the quantity and distribution of IMC particles varied with TRS. All welds exhibited brittle fracture mode with their fracture paths propagating mainly in/along the IMCs in the BS. It is shown that these BS microstructural characters have significant effect on the mechanical properties of the joints. Suggestions on tailoring the BS microstructure were proposed for improving the strength of the BS zone and the final mechanical properties of the Al/Mg FSW joints.

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Formation of the Surface Eutectic of a Ni-based Single Crystal Superalloy
Cao Liang, Yao Li, Zhou Yizhou, Jin Tao, Sun Xiaofeng
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (4): 347-351.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.014
Abstract   HTML PDF (1862KB)  

The microstructure, size, elemental composition and hardness of the surface eutectic layer formed during directional solidification of a Ni-based single crystal superalloy were studied. The formation mechanisms of the surface eutectic on the outer surface of the casting were also discussed. The metal/mould interactions did not play any role in the formation of the surface eutectic. The formation cause of surface eutectic layer was attributed to the interdendritic residual liquid for excretion caused by solidification shrinkage.

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Grain nucleation and growth behavior of a Sn-Pb alloy affected by direct current: An in situ investigation
Yang Fenfen, Chen Zongning, Cao Fei, Fan Rong, Kang Huijun, Huang Wanxia, Yuan Qingxi, Xiao Tiqiao, Fu Yanan, Wang Tongmin
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (10): 1134-1140.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.05.011
Abstract   HTML PDF (1484KB)  

In situ synchrotron X-ray radiography was used to study the effect of direct current (DC) on the grain nucleation and growth of Sn-50 wt.%Pb alloy. The results showed that applying DC adequately during solidification could effectively enhance the grain nucleation and inhibit its growth. Imaging of comparative experiments with varying DC intensity indicated that the final grain size, determined by the competition between grain nucleation and growth, was sensitively dependent on the DC intensity. It was found that the average grain size was decreased from 1632 to 567 μm with DC density of 1.5 A/mm2 compared to the case without DC. Beyond this value, raising the current density may cause a significant decrease in the nucleation rate, and thus lead to a coarsening of the grain structure.

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Formability of friction stir processed low carbon steels used in shipbuilding
Sekban D.M., Akterer S.M., Saray O., Ma Z.Y., Purcek G.
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2018, 34 (1): 237-244.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.10.020
Abstract   HTML PDF (3452KB)  

The stretch formability of a low carbon steel processed by friction stir processing (FSP) was studied under biaxial loading condition applied by a miniaturized Erichsen test. One-pass FSP decreased the ferritic grain size in the processed zone from 25 μm to about 3 μm, which also caused a remarkable increase in strength values without considerable decrease in formability under uniaxial loading. A coarse-grained (CG) sample before FSP reflected a moderate formability with an Erichsen index (EI) of 2.73 mm. FSP slightly decreased the stretch formability of the sample to 2.66 mm. However, FSP increased the required punch load (FEI) due to the increased strength by grain refinement. FSP reduced considerably the roughness of the free surface of the biaxial stretched samples with reduced orange peel effect. The average roughness value (Ra) decreased from 2.90 in the CG sample down to about 0.65 μm in fine-grained (FG) sample after FSP. It can be concluded that the FG microstructure in low carbon steels sheets or plates used generally in shipbuilding provides a good balance between strength and formability.

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Experimental and simulated characterization of creep behavior of P92 steel with prior cyclic loading damage
Zhang Wei, Wang Xiaowei, Gong Jianming, Jiang Yong, Huang Xin
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (12): 1540-1548.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.09.006
Abstract   HTML PDF (4831KB)  

The effect of prior cyclic loading on creep behavior of P92 steel was investigated. Creep tests on prior cyclic loading exposure specimens were performed at 650 °C and 130 MPa. In order to clarify the influence of prior cyclic loading on creep behavior, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were used. Experimental results indicate that the prior cyclic loading degrades the creep strength significantly. However, the degradation tends to be saturated with further increase in prior cyclic loading. From the view of microstructural evolution, the recovery of martensite laths takes place during prior cyclic loading exposure. This facilitates the dislocation movement during the following creep process. Therefore, premature rupture of creep test occurs. Additionally, saturated behavior of degradation can be attributed to the near completed recovery of martensite laths. Based on the effect of prior cyclic loading, a newly modified Hayhurst creep damage model was proposed to consider the prior cyclic loading damage. The main advantage of the proposed model lies in its ability to directly predict creep behavior with different levels of prior cyclic loading damage. Comparison of the predicted and experimental results shows that the proposed model can give a reasonable prediction for creep behavior of P92 steel with different level of prior cyclic loading damage.

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New insights into the effect of Tris-HCl and Tris on corrosion of magnesium alloy in presence of bicarbonate, sulfate, hydrogen phosphate and dihydrogen phosphate ions
Cui Lan-Yue, Hu Yan, Zeng Rong-Chang, Yang Yong-Xin, Sun Dan-Dan, Li Shuo-Qi, Zhang Fen, Han En-Hou
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2017, 33 (9): 971-988.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.01.005
Abstract   HTML PDF (9293KB)  

In vitro degradation is an important approach to screening appropriate biomedical magnesium (Mg) alloys at low cost. However, corrosion products deposited on Mg alloys exert a critical impact on corrosion resistance. There are no acceptable criteria on the evaluation on degradation rate of Mg alloys. Understanding the degradation behavior of Mg alloys in presence of Tris buffer is necessary. An investigation was made to compare the influence of Tris-HCl and Tris on the corrosion behavior of Mg alloy AZ31 in the presence of various anions of simulated body fluids via hydrogen evolution, pH value and electrochemical tests. The results demonstrated that the Tris-HCl buffer resulted in general corrosion due to the inhibition of the formation of corrosion products and thus increased the corrosion rate of the AZ31 alloy. Whereas Tris gave rise to pitting corrosion or general corrosion due to the fact that the hydrolysis of the amino-group of Tris led to an increase in solution pH value, and promoted the formation of corrosion products and thus a significant reduction in corrosion rate. In addition, the corrosion mechanisms in the presence of Tris-HCl and Tris were proposed. Tris-HCl as a buffer prevented the formation of precipitates of HCO3-, SO42-, HPO42- and H2PO4- ions during the corrosion of the AZ31 alloy due to its lower buffering pH value (x.x). Thus, both the hydrogen evolution rate and corrosion current density of the alloy were approximately one order of magnitude higher in presence of Tris-HCl than Tris and Tris-free saline solutions.

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CN: 21-1315/TG
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