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CN 21-1315/TG
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      05 August 2019, Volume 35 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Synthesis of fluorescent carbon quantum dots from aqua mesophase pitch and their photocatalytic degradation activity of organic dyes
    Cheng Youliang, Bai Mengsha, Su Jian, Fang Changqing, Li Hang, Chen Jing, Jiao Jieming
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1515-1522.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.039

    A synthesis strategy of fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with high quantum yield (QY) using aqua mesophase pitch (AMP) as the carbon source has been developed via the hydrothermal method in this study. The hydrothermal temperature and soaking time have important effects on the morphology and QY of CQDs. As-prepared CQDs at 120 °C holding for 24 h (CQDs-120-24) have the uniform size of about 2.8 nm, and the QY can reach 27.6%. The obtained CQDs are successfully modified with ammonia and thionyl chloride, respectively, and they exhibit an excellent photocatalytic performance on degrading rhodamine B (Rh B), methyl blue (MB) and indigo carmine (IC). Importantly, the degradation percentage of N-CQDs on Rh B under natural light for 4 h reaches 97% with the degradation rate constant of 0.02463 min-1 and it can maintain 93% after repetitively used 5 times. The results indicate that these as-prepared CQDs have the potential application in degrading organic dyes.

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    Microstructural characteristics and mechanical behavior of B4Cp/6061Al composites synthesized at different hot-pressing temperatures
    Gao Minqiang, Chen Zongning, Kang Huijun, Guo Enyu, Li Rengeng, Fu Ying, Xie Honglan, Wang Tongmin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1523-1531.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.040

    B4Cp/6061Al composites have become important structural and functional materials and can be fabricated by powder metallurgy and subsequent hot rolling. In this work, the effects of the hot-pressing temperature on microstructures and mechanical behaviors of the B4Cp/6061Al composites were investigated. The results showed that compared with the T4 heat treated B4Cp/6061Al composite hot pressed at 560 °C, the yield strength and failure strain of the composites hot pressed at 580 °C were increased to 235 MPa and 18.4%, respectively. This was associated with the interface bonding strength between the B4C particles and the matrix. However, the reaction products, identified to be MgAl2O4 phases, were detected in the composites hot pressed at 600 °C. The formation of the MgAl2O4 phases resulted in the Mg depletion, thus reducing the yield strength to 203.5 MPa after the T4 heat treatment due to the effect of the solid solution strengthening being weakened. In addition, the variation of hardness and electrical conductivity was mainly related to the Mg content in the matrix. Based on the as-rolled microstructures observed by SEM, SR-μCT and fracture surfaces, the deformation schematic diagram was depicted to reflect the tensile deformation process of the composites.

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    Constructing two-scale network microstructure with nano-Ti5Si3 for superhigh creep resistance
    Jiao Y., Huang L.J., Wei S.L., Peng H.X., An Q., Jiang S., Geng L.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1532-1542.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.04.001

    The improvement of mechanical properties must be achieved by designing and constructing more suitable microstructure, such as hierarchical microstructure. In order to significantly enhance the creep resistance of titanium matrix composites (TMCs), two-scale network microstructure was constructed including the first-scale network (<150 μm) with micro-TiB whisker (TiBw) reinforcement and the second-scale network (<30 μm) with nano-Ti5Si3 reinforcement by powder metallurgy and in-situ synthesis. The results showed that the creep rate of the composite was remarkably reduced by an order of magnitude compared with the Ti6Al4V alloy at 550 °C, 600 °C, 650 °C under the stresses between 100 MPa and 350 MPa. Moreover, the rupture time of the composite was increased by 20 times, compared with that of the Ti6Al4V alloy at 550 °C/300 MPa. The superior creep resistance could be attributed to the hierarchical microstructure. The micro-TiBw reinforcement in the first-scale network boundary contributed to creep resistance primarily by blocking grain boundary sliding, while the nano-Ti5Si3 particle in the second-scale network boundary mainly by hindering phase boundary sliding. In addition, the nano-Ti5Si3 particle was dissolved, and precipitated with smaller size than the primary Ti5Si3. This phenomenon was attributed to Si element diffusion under high temperature and external stress, which could further continuously enhance the creep resistance. Finally, the creep rate during steady-state stage was significantly decreased, which manifested superior creep resistance of the composite.

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    Influence of welding parameters on interface evolution and mechanical properties of FSW Al/Ti lap joints
    Yu Mingrun, Zhao Hongyun, Jiang Zhihua, Zhang Zili, Xu Fei, Zhou Li, Song Xiaoguo
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1543-1554.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.04.002

    Friction stir welding (FSW) was performed to produce Al/Ti lap joints under various welding conditions. More heat was generated when rotational rate increased or traversing rate decreased. Two types of Al/Ti interfaces - mixed interface and diffusive interface - were formed under different welding conditions. The diffusive interface was formed with low heat input, and the mixed interface was formed more heat. The grains at the mixed interface were larger than those at the diffusive interface because of the higher heat input. Moreover, the microstructure of the mixed interface had a lower texture intensity compared with that of the diffusive interface, which was attributed to the enhanced continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX). TiAl3 was formed at the diffusive interface. When the interface varied to the mixed interface as heat input increased, TiAl was fomed within the Al/Ti mixture following the formation of TiAl3. In addition, TiAl3 precipitates were observed in the diffusion layer. The hardness value of the mixed interface was higher than 350 HV, due to the larger amount of intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The lap shear strength reached a maximum value of 147 MPa with medium heat input and an interface that exits in a critical state between diffusive and mixed interfaces. All the specimens fractured at the interface, which was attributed to the presence of IMCs.

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    Improving fatigue performance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy via ultrasonic surface rolling process
    Liu Chengsong, Liu Daoxin, Zhang Xiaohua, Liu Dan, Ma Amin, Ao Ni, Xu Xingchen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1555-1562.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.036

    The effect of a gradient nanostructured (GNS) surface layer obtained by ultrasonic surface rolling process (USRP) on the fatigue behavior of Ti-6Al-4 V alloy has been studied in this paper. Microstructure, surface topography, surface roughness and residual stress measurements were performed to characterize the surface under different conditions. Rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out to evaluate the fatigue behavior of different treatments. The results present a remarkable fatigue performance enhancement for the Ti-6Al-4 V alloy with a GNS surface layer obtained by application of USRP with respect to the untreated condition, notwithstanding its considerable surface roughness due to severe ultrasonic impacts and extrusions. Mechanical surface polishing treatment further enhances the beneficial effects of USRP on the fatigue performance. The significantly improved fatigue performance can mainly be ascribed to the compressive residual stress. Simultaneously, the GNS surface layer and surface work hardening have a synergistic effect that accompanies the effect of compressive residual stress.

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    Adoption of wide-bandgap microcrystalline silicon oxide and dual buffers for semitransparent solar cells in building-integrated photovoltaic window system
    Yang Johwa, Jo Hyunjin, Choi Soo-Won, Kang Dong-Won, Kwon Jung-Dae
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1563-1569.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.041

    We focused on developing penetration-type semitransparent thin-film solar cells (STSCs) using hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) for a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) window system. Instead of conventional p-type a-Si:H, p-type hydrogenated microcrystalline Si oxide (p-μc-SiOx:H) was introduced for a wide-bandgap and conductive window layer. For these purposes, we tuned the CO2/SiH4 flow ratio (R) during p-μc-SiOx:H deposition. The film crystallinity decreased from 50% to 13% as R increased from 0.2 to 1.2. At the optimized R of 0.6, the quantum efficiency was improved under short wavelengths by the suppression of p-type layer parasitic absorption. The series resistance was well controlled to avoid fill factor loss at R = 0.6. Furthermore, we introduced dual buffers comprising p-a-SiOx:H/i-a-Si:H at the p/i interface to alleviate interfacial energy-band mismatch. The a-Si:H STSCs with the suggested window and dual buffers showed improvements in transmittance and efficiency from 22.9% to 29.3% and from 4.62% to 6.41%, respectively, compared to the STSC using a pristine p-a-Si:H window.

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    Modulating conductivity type of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) films on copper foil in aqueous solution by comproportionation
    Tang Changwei, Ning Xiaohui, Li Jian, Guo Hui-Lin, Yang Ying
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1570-1577.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.04.009

    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is an attractive material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production or photovoltaic application, because of its appropriate band gap, low material cost and non-toxic. In this paper, Cu2O films were obtained by comproportionation in acid cupric sulfate solutions with varying concentrations of potassium nitrate. Photoelectrochemical and electrochemical experiments, such as zero-bias photocurrent responses, voltammograms, and Mott-Schottky measurements, show that the Cu2O films grown in low (≤0.75 mol dm-3) and high (≥1.00 mol dm-3) nitrate ion concentrations presented n-type and p-type conductivity, respectively. Open circuit potential and polarization behavior were monitored to investigate the mechanism of modulating conductivity type. Nitrate ions consume protons in the plating solution during comproportionation with different concentrations of nitrate ions creating different pH at the Cu2O/solution interface. This gradient leads to the transformation of Cu2O films conductivity changing from n-type to p-type with increasing the concentration of nitrate ions in the plating solution. This method could be used to fabricate homojunction electrode on metal substrate for PEC hydrogen production or photoelectric application.

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    Static coarsening behaviour of lamellar microstructure in selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V
    Cao Sheng, Hu Qiaodan, Huang Aijun, Chen Zhuoer, Sun Ming, Zhang Jiahua, Fu Chenxi, Jia Qingbo, Voon Samuel Lim Chao, R.Boyer Rodney, Yang Yi, Wu Xinhua
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1578-1586.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.04.008

    Static coarsening mechanism of selective laser melted (SLMed) Ti-6Al-4V with a lamellar microstructure was established at temperatures from 700 °C to 950 °C. Microstructure evolution revealed that high heat treatment temperature facilitated martensite decomposition and promoted lamellae growth. At each temperature, the growth rate decreased with increasing holding time. The static coarsening behaviour of SLMed Ti-6Al-4V can be interpreted by Lifshitz, Slyozov, and Wagner (LSW) theory. The coarsening coefficient were 0.33, 0.33-0.4, 0.4-0.5 for 700-800 °C, 900 °C and 950 °C, respectively. This indicated the coarsening mechanism was bulk diffusion at 700-800 °C, and a combination of bulk diffusion and interface reaction at 900 °C and 950 °C conditions.

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    Three dimensional dendritic morphology and orientation transition induced by high static magnetic field in directionally solidified Al-10 wt.%Zn alloy
    Shuai Sansan, Lin Xin, Dong Yuanhao, Hou Long, Liao Hanlin, Wang Jiang, Ren Zhongming
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1587-1592.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.029

    Effect of high static magnetic field on the dendritic morphology and growth direction in directionally solidified Al-10 wt.%Zn alloy were studied by three-dimensional (3D) X-ray micro-computed tomography, Electron Back-scattered Diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The application of high static axial magnetic field (5T) during directional solidification was found to destabilize the solid/liquid interface and cause the growth direction of dendrite deviate from thermal gradient, leading to irregular solid/liquid interfacial shape and cellular to dendritic morphology transition. The thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC) caused by the interaction of thermoelectric effect and magnetic field was supposed to be responsible for the transition. In addition, the EBSD and XRD results confirm that the preferred growth direction of α-Al was found to transform from the traditionally expected <100> to <110>. The dendrite orientation transition (DOT) in Al-10 wt.%Zn alloy can be attributed to the effect of applied magnetic field on the anisotropy of crystal during solidification. The result indicates the potential application of high static magnetic field in altering the morphology and preferred growth direction of dendrite during directional solidification.

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    Phase pure and well crystalline Cr2AlB2: A key precursor for two-dimensional CrB
    Zhang Haiming, Dai Fu-Zhi, Xiang Huimin, Wang Xiaohui, Zhang Zhili, Zhou Yanchun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1593-1600.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.031

    Phase pure and well crystalline Cr2AlB2 powders are synthesized by heating the mixtures of CrB and Al powders at 900 °C. Cr2AlB2 exhibits nanolaminated morphology which transforms from flake-like crystallite to needle-like grain with the increase of holding time. The morphology-structure relationships of Cr2AlB2 are delicately discussed. Meanwhile, as the precursor for fabrication of Cr2AlB2, high purity CrB powders are also prepared by high-temperature reaction of B and Cr elemental powders at 1800 °C. CrB grains grow into regular plate-like morphology. Through Rietveld structure refinement, new sets of diffraction data are presented for both CrB and Cr2AlB2 and overlapped peak positions and intensities are revealed which make up for the deficiency of the existing data in ICDD PDF #32-0277 (CrB) and ICDD PDF #72-1847 (Cr2AlB2). Moreover, since MAB phases are precursors for preparing MBenes, 2D-CrB nanosheets are successfully prepared by completely etching out Al atomic layers from Cr2AlB2. 2D-CrB crystalizes in CrB structure with two-dimensional lamellar morphology. Simultaneously the formation mechanism of 2D-CrB is vividly depicted. A system of materials preparation from CrB to Cr2AlB2 and then to 2D-CrB is well established.

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    Preparation of nanostructured Cu/Zr metal mixed oxides via self-sustained oxidation of a CuZr binary amorphous alloy
    Li Xingzhou, Wu Jili, Pan Ye
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1601-1606.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.020

    We propose and demonstrate for the first time an approach to synthesize nanostructured photocatalysts through combustion of metal alloys in amorphous state. This approach takes advantage of metastable state and composition homogeneity of amorphous alloys and produce photocatalysts with uniformly dispersed oxides at nanoscale by self-propagating reactions. Using CuZr amorphous ribbons as an example, we demonstrate a photocatalyst containing copper oxides and ZrO2 in the form of 10 nm-thick nanosheet with 2 nm nanopores. The new catalyst substantially outperforms those previously reported copper oxide catalysts in experiments of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and direct methanol fuel cells. This study opens up an avenue to fabricate nanostructured functional oxides in an environment friendly approach not only for photocatalyst but also for oxide based nanoelectronic and nanoionic applications.

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    Influence of grain size on the small fatigue crack initiation and propagation behaviors of a nickel-based superalloy at 650 °C
    Zhu Xumin, Gong Congyang, Jia Yun-Fei, Wang Runzi, Zhang Chengcheng, Fu Yao, Tu Shan-Tung, Zhang Xian-Cheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1607-1617.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.023

    GH4169 at 650 °C in atmosphere was investigated by using single edge notch tensile specimens. The number of main cracks and crack initiation mechanisms at the notch surface strongly depended on the grain size. The crack initiation life accounted for more percentages of the total fatigue life for the alloy with smaller grain size. The fatigue life generally increased with increasing crack initiation life. The small crack transited to long crack when its length reached $\widetilde{1}$0 times the grain size.

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    Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Sn-Zn-xBi alloys used for miniature detonating cords
    Liu Guangyu, Khorsand Shohreh, Ji Shouxun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1618-1628.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.026

    Recently, Sn-Zn-Bi alloys have been reported to be the sheath material for miniature detonating cords, due to appropriate mechanical properties, ease of manufacturing, and low cost. Bi addition was found beneficial to the mechanical performance of Sn-Zn. However, limited information about the influence of Bi on the corrosion properties of Sn-Zn alloys has been provided. In this work, electrochemical corrosion behaviours of Sn-3Zn-xBi (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 wt%) alloys were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques, to explore the effects of Bi on the corrosion performance of Sn-Zn alloys. The corrosion mechanism of Sn-Zn-Bi alloys was analysed through microstructure examination on the surface of alloys after corrosion measurements. Results indicated that the addition of 1 wt% Bi increased the corrosion susceptibility of the Sn-3Zn alloy, mainly attributed to the coarsened and more uniformly distributed corrosion-vulnerable Zn-rich precipitates, while further increasing the Bi contents decreased the corrosion susceptibility of Sn-3Zn-xBi alloys due to the higher fraction of nobler Bi particles serving as anodic barriers. The Sn-3Zn-7Bi possessed the best corrosion resistance among all Sn-Zn-Bi alloys investigated. The role of Bi on corrosion was considerably discussed.

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    Effect of the addition of Mg, Ti, Ni on the decoloration performance of AlCrFeMn high entropy alloy
    Wu Shikai, Pan Ye, Lu Jie, Wang Ning, Dai Weiji, Lu Tao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1629-1635.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.025

    Due to the excellent mechanical properties of high entropy alloys (HEAs), they have attracted wide attention of materials researchers, but their functional properties have rarely been reported. In order to study the functional properties of HEAs, the decoloration of azo dye Direct Blue 6 (DB6) using equiatomic AlCrFeMn and AlCrFeMnM (M = Mg, Ti, Ni) HEAs synthesized by mechanical alloying was reported in this work. The decoloration rate of DB6 by ball-milled (BM) AlCrFeMn was about 3 times faster than that of by BM MgZn-based amorphous alloy, which was the best one reported in the metallic glasses so far. In order to further improve the decoloration efficiency, we considered adding the fifth elements (Mg or Ti or Ni) to AlCrFeMn. Both of Mg and Ti could improve the decoloration performance of AlCrFeMn, but Ni played a negative role. The reaction activity of AlCrFeMnMg and AlCrFeMnTi was more than 2 and 1.2 times faster than that of AlCrFeMn. The effects of initial pH, temperatures and dye concentration on the decoloration efficiency of AlCrFeMnMg during reactions were systematically investigated. The reaction activity of AlCrFeMnMg in alkaline and acidic azo dye solution was about 37.5 and 16.6 times faster than that of neutral solution, respectively. This work had implications in reaching an attractive, low cost and efficient method for functional applications of HEAs.

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    Ambiguous temperature difference in aerodynamic levitation process: Modelling, solving and application
    Ge Xuan, Xu Xiaowei, Hu Qiaodan, Lu Wenquan, Yang Liang, Cao Sheng, Xia Mingxu, Li Jianguo
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1636-1643.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.024

    The aerodynamic levitation provides an efficient technique for the research on thermophysical properties and solidification behavior of refractory materials. However, there is a nonnegligible temperature differences across sample, causing unexpected uncertainty of measurement, such as, thermal expansivity and undercooling limit. We establish thermal filed model with properly simplified boundary condition, and derive quantitative expressions of this ambiguous temperature difference. Here we show that the temperature difference not only related to the average temperature, relative size and thermal conductivity of sample, but significantly influenced by the rotation pattern of sample. A huge temperature differences is almost inevitable when the sample with low thermal conductivity and high melting point is smelted in stationary suspension pattern, however, a drastically reduction of temperature difference can be fulfilled by simply making the sample rotation in up to down pattern. The thermal filed simulation was used to confirm the validity of these theoretical expressions. This work shed light on temperature difference in aerodynamic levitation. Based on this work, one can simply estimate the extent of temperature difference across the sample, and regulated that conveniently if needed, which benefit for novel material preparation and solidification mechanism study based on this technique.

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    Significantly improved corrosion resistance of Mg-15Gd-2Zn-0.39Zr alloys: Effect of heat-treatment
    Liu Jing, Yang Lixin, Zhang Chunyan, Zhang Bo, Zhang Tao, Li Yang, Wu Kaiming, Wang Fuhui
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1644-1654.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.027

    The effects of heat-treatment on corrosion behavior of Mg-15Gd-2Zn-0.39 Zr alloys were investigated through microstructure characterization, corrosion tests, and scanning Kelvin probe force microscope (SKPFM) analysis. In long-term corrosion experiments, the corrosion rates of Mg-Gd-Zn-Zr alloys were mainly determined by the effects of micro-galvanic corrosion. During heat-treatment, the β-(Mg,Zn)3Gd eutectic phase in as-cast alloys transformed into a long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase, coupled with the precipitation of small precipitates. As heat-treatment proceeded, the local potential and the volume fraction of the LPSO phases reduced gradually compared with the eutectic phase, which resulted in a remarkable decrease of the micro-galvanic effect between the second phase and Mg matrix. As a result, the corrosion resistance of heat-treated alloys improved significantly.

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    Microstructure and soft-magnetic properties of FeCoPCCu nanocrystalline alloys
    Hou Long, Fan Xingdu, Wang Qianqian, Yang Weiming, Shen Baolong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1655-1661.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.030

    Fe83.2-xCoxP10C6Cu0.8 (x = 0, 4, 6, 8 and 10) alloys with a high amorphous-forming ability and good soft-magnetic properties were successfully synthesized. Saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) is effectively enhanced from 1.53 T to 1.61 T for as-quenched alloy by minor Co addition, which is consistent well with the result of the linear relationship between average magnetic moment and magnetic valence. For Co-contained alloys, the value of corecivity (Hc) is mainly determined by magneto-crystalline anisotropy, while effective permeability (μe) is dominated by grain size and average saturation polarization. After proper heat treatment, the Fe79.2Co4P10C6Cu0.8 nanocrystalline alloy exhibited excellent soft-magnetic properties including a high Bs of 1.8 T, a low Hc of 6.6 A/m and a high μe of 15,510, which is closely related to the high volume fraction of α-(Fe, Co) grains and refined uniform nanocrystalline microstructure.

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    Diameter-dependent in vitro performance of biodegradable pure zinc wires for suture application
    Guo H., Cao R.H., Zheng Y.F., Bai J., Xue F., Chu C.L.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1662-1670.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.006

    In this study, biodegradable pure zinc wires with 3.0 mm and 0.3 mm in diameter were prepared via hot-extrusion and subsequent cold-drawing process respectively. The microstructure, mechanical performance, corrosion behavior, in vitro cytocompatibility and antibacterial effect were comparatively studied. After cold-drawing, the mechanical property, especially the elongation of the ф0.3 mm pure Zn wire was improved significantly compared with the ф3.0 mm pure Zn wire. The in vitro corrosion study including immersion and electrochemical test showed acceptable corrosion resistance of these two materials in Hank's solution. The in vitro Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) viability assay showed obviously different results, in which the ф0.3 mm pure Zn wire demonstrated favorable cytocompatibility, while the ф3.0 mm wire exhibited severe cytotoxic effect with 100% extract concentration. Both of them exhibited partly antibacterial effect on S. aureus. These results demonstrated the feasibility of the prepared 0.3 mm pure Zn wire as the potential suture material with good absorbability.

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    Interfacial microstructure evolution and bonding mechanisms of 14YWT alloys produced by hot compression bonding
    Zhou Liying, Feng Shaobo, Sun Mingyue, Xu Bin, Li Dianzhong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1671-1680.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.04.005

    Hot compression bonding was first used to join oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferrite steels (14YWT) under temperatures of 750-1100°C with a true strain range of 0.11-0.51. Subsequently, the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of the joints were characterized, revealing that the 14YWT steels could be successfully bonded at a temperature of at least 950 °C with a true strain of 0.22, without degrading the fine grain and nanoparticle distribution, and the presence of inclusions or micro-voids along the bonding interface. Moreover, the joints had nearly the same tensile properties at room temperature and exhibited a similar fracture morphology with sufficient dimples compared to that of the base material. An electron backscattered diffraction technique and transmission electron microscopy were systematically employed to study the evolution of hot deformed microstructures. The results showed that continuous dynamic recrystallization characterized by progressive subgrain rotation occurred in this alloy, but discontinuous dynamic recrystallization characterized by strain-induced grain boundary bulging and subsequent bridging sub-boundary rotation was the dominant nucleation mechanism. The nuclei will grow with ongoing deformation, which will contribute to the healing of the original bonding interface.

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    Temperature-gradient induced microstructure evolution in heat-affected zone of electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy
    Zhang Shilin, Ma Yingjie, Huang Sensen, S. Youssef Sabry, Qi Min, Wang Hao, Qiu Jianke, Lei Jiafeng, Yang Rui
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1681-1690.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.04.004

    The heat-affected zone (HAZ) of electron beam welded (EBW) joint normally undergoes a unique heat-treating process consisting of rapid temperature rising and dropping stages, resulting in temperature-gradient in HAZ as a function of the distance to fusion zone (FZ). In the current work, microstructure, elements distribution and crystallographic orientation of three parts (near base material (BM) zone, mid-HAZ and near-FZ) in the HAZ of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were systematically investigated. The microstructure observation revealed that the microstructural variation from near-BM to near-FZ included the reduction of primary α (αp) grains, the increase of transformed β structure (βt) and the formation of various α structures. The rim-α, dendritic α and abnormal secondary α (αs) colonies formed in the mid-HAZ, while the “ghost” structures grew in the near-FZ respectively. The electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) technologies were employed to evaluate the elements diffusion and texture evolution during the unique thermal process of welding. The formation of the various α structures in the HAZ were discussed based on the EPMA and EBSD results. Finally, the nanoindentation hardness of “ghost” structures was presented and compared with nearby βt regions.

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    Preparation of NiCoFe-hydroxide/polyaniline composite for enhanced-performance supercapacitors
    Liu Lu, Hu Xi, Zeng Hong-Yan, Yi Mo-Yu, Shen Shi-Gen, Xu Sheng, Cao Xi, Du Jin-Ze
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1691-1699.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.04.003

    Ternary NiCoFe layer hydroxides with different Ni/Co/Fe molar ratios were prepared using simple urea method. By finely tuning Ni/Co/Fe molar ratio, the optimized hydroxide (LDH2.0), a Ni/Co/Fe molar ratio of 2.0/1.0/1.0, provided high specific capacitance (408 F g-1 at 2.0 A g-1) and good stability (90.9% retention over 1000 cycles) due to maximum crystallinity (91.35% crystallinity) and specific surface area (160 m2 g-1). In order to further improve the electrochemical performances, the LDH2.0 was made into a composite (LDH/PANI) with polyaniline (PANI) via in situ polymerization of aniline monomer. The LDH/PANI composite had a much higher specific capacitance (717 F g-1 at 2.0 A g-1) compared with the LDH2.0, and a significant improvement of cycleability (84.7% retention over 1000 cycles). The results indicated that the LDH/PANI had a synergistic effect of both components due to the complementary properties, which guaranteed a good electric contact and consequently increased the specific capacitance. These provided a new approach for designing organic-inorganic composite materials with potential application in supercapacitors.

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    High porosity and low thermal conductivity high entropy (Zr0.2Hf0.2Ti0.2Nb0.2Ta0.2)C
    Chen Heng, Xiang Huimin, Dai Fu-Zhi, Liu Jiachen, Lei Yiming, Zhang Jie, Zhou Yanchun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1700-1705.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.04.006

    Porous ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs) are promising for ultrahigh-temperature thermal insulation applications. However, the main limitations for their applications are the high thermal conductivity and densification of porous structure at high temperatures. In order to overcome these obstacles, herein, porous high entropy (Zr0.2Hf0.2Ti0.2Nb0.2 Ta0.2)C was prepared by a simple method combing in-situ reaction and partial sintering. Porous high entropy (Zr0.2Hf0.2Ti0.2Nb0.2Ta0.2)C possesses homogeneous microstructure with grain size in the range of 100-500 nm and pore size in the range of 0.2-1 μm, which exhibits high porosity of 80.99%, high compressive strength of 3.45 MPa, low room temperature thermal conductivity of 0.39 W·m-1 K-1, low thermal diffusivity of 0.74 mm2·s-1 and good high temperature stability. The combination of these properties renders porous high entropy (Zr0.2Hf0.2Ti0.2Nb0.2Ta0.2)C promising as light-weight ultrahigh temperature thermal insulation materials.

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    P-type SnO thin films prepared by reactive sputtering at high deposition rates
    Guillén C., Herrero J.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1706-1711.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.034

    SnO is an ideally suitable p-type conductive material, with large hole mobility, and has attracted great interest in connection with next-generation electronic applications. In the present work, tin oxide (SnOx) thin films were deposited on unheated soda lime glass substrates by reactive DC sputtering from a pure Sn target. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were analysed as a function of the oxygen partial pressure in the sputtering atmosphere and of the post-deposition annealing temperature in air. A structural analysis was carried out using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Optical and electrical characterizations were performed using photo-spectrometry and Hall effect measurements, respectively. The films grown at room temperature and low oxygen pressures reached high deposition rates of above 45 nm/min, showing poorly crystalline SnO and low transparency. Subsequent heating to 350 °C allowed to achieve a more crystalline tetragonal SnO with an average visible transmittance of 65%, a p-type conductivity of 0.8 S/cm, and a hole mobility of 3.5 cm2/(V s).

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    Dissimilar Al/Mg alloys friction stir lap welding with Zn foil assisted by ultrasonic
    Ji Shude, Niu Shiyu, Liu Jianguang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1712-1718.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.033

    The Zn-added ultrasonic assisted friction stir lap welding (UaFSLW) was carried out to improve the quality of dissimilar Al/Mg alloys joint. The effects of ultrasonic power on the joint quality were also investigated. The results indicated that the larger effective lap width and mixing region between Mg and Al (Mg/Al MR) were attained by Zn foil addition and external ultrasonic assistance. Compared with the conventional joint, the finer and better-distributed Mg-Zn IMCs placing the continuous Al-Mg IMCs were formed in the Mg/Al MR of the Zn-added UaFSLW joint. The Zn foil addition and external ultrasonic assistance significantly improved the tensile shear load of the joint, and the load was increased with the increase of the ultrasonic power. The maximum tensile shear load of 7.95 kN was attained, which was 52.6% larger than that of the conventional joint.

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    Effects of solution treatment on grain coarsening and hardness of laser welds in UNS N10003 alloy contained different carbon content
    Yu Kun, Shi Xianwu, Jiang Zhenguo, Li Chaowen, Chen Shuangjian, Tao Wang, Zhou Xingtai, Li Zhijun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1719-1726.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.016

    Microstructure and microhardness evolution of laser welds in low carbon UNS N10003 alloy (LC alloy) and high carbon UNS N10003 alloy (HC alloy) before and after solution treatment have been characterized and investigated in this work. The eutectic M6C-γcarbides have been transformed into spherical M6C carbides in fusion zone of HC alloy, while it can be found that the spherical M6C carbides were precipitated in fusion zone of LC alloy after solution treatment. The grain coarsening of fusion zone in HC alloy was slight because the migration of grain boundaries were impeded by the eutectic M6C-γcarbides. However, the columnar grains of fusion zone in LC alloy were transformed into the coarse equiaxed grains due to the migration of grain boundaries were not impeded. The activation energy of grain growth between 1093 °C and 1177 °C for 20 min in LC fusion zone was 144.3 kJ mol-1, while that of HC fusion zone was 309.5 kJ mol-1 calculated according to the classical Arrhenius equation. The microhardness of fusion zone in LC alloy was lower than that of fusion zone in HC alloy after solution treatment because of no dispersion strengthening and grain coarsening.

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    Structure and hydrogen storage characteristics of as-spun Mg-Y-Ni-Cu alloys
    Zhang Yanghuan, Wang Pengpeng, Hou Zhonghui, Yuan Zeming, Qi Yan, Guo Shihai
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1727-1734.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.037

    Experimental alloys with compositions of Mg25-xYxNi9Cu (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7) have been successfully prepared through melt spinning method. The phase compositions and microstructures were measured by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The de-/hydrogenation properties were measured by utilizing Sievert apparatus, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) connected with a H2 detector. The Arrhenius and Kissinger methods were adopted to calculate their dehydrogenation activation energies. The results show that hydrogen absorption kinetics of the alloys notably decline while their hydrogen desorption kinetics conspicuously improve with spinning rate increasing. The dehydrogenation activation energy markedly decreases with spinning rate increasing, which makes the hydrogen desorption kinetics improve. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH and ΔS absolute values) clearly decrease with spinning rate increasing. The hydrogen absorption capacity exhibits different trends with spinning rate rising. Specifically, hydrogen absorption capacity increases at the beginning and declines later for Y1 alloy, but that of Y7 alloy always decreases with spinning rate growing.

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    Confining effect of oxide film on tin whisker growth
    Liu Yushuang, Zhang Peigen, Yu Jin, Chen Jian, Zhang Yamei, Sun Zhengming
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1735-1739.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.042

    Spontaneous tin whisker growth has been mysterious and catastrophic for more than half century. The difficulty in the research on this topic consists of the randomness of the whisker growth, the slow growth rate and many other tricky factors. Herein, with Ti2SnC-Sn as a new platform, fast tin whisker growth is realized to facilitate the research. The whisker morphology is found to be modulated by oxide film. A striated whisker morphology forms as growing in air, whereas a faceted morphology forms in vacuum. Furthermore, the evolution to the faceted morphology is attributed to the reconstruction of the whisker surface driven by surface energy reduction. The findings might open a new avenue to uncover the myths of this long-standing issue, and thus develop a long-awaited lead-free tin whisker mitigation strategy.

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    TiO2 ALD decorated CuO/BiVO4 p-n heterojunction for improved photoelectrochemical water splitting
    Meng Linxing, Tian Wei, Wu Fangli, Cao Fengren, Li Liang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1740-1746.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.008

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising photoanode material owing to the narrow bandgap, appropriate band position, and excellent resistance against photocorrosion, however, the performance of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is largely limited by the poor carrier separation and transport ability. To address these issues, for the first time, we fabricate BiVO4 film/CuO nanocone p-n junctions as photoanodes by combing a facile spin-coating process and water bath reaction. This structure strengthens the light harvesting and promotes the charge separation and transport ability. The surface defects states are passivated by coating conformally ultrathin TiO2 onto CuO surface through atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Benefiting from the favorable morphology, energy band, and surface treatment, the BiVO4/CuO/TiO2 heterojunction generates an improved photocurrent that is much higher than pure BiVO4. The detailed mechanism investigations indicate that the synergetic optimization of charge separation and injection efficiency in the bulk and surface of photoelectrodes can significantly improve the performance of PEC cells.

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    On the heterogeneous microstructure development in the welded joint of 12MnNiVR pressure vessel steel subjected to high heat input electrogas welding
    Shen Yang, Leng Ju, Wang Cong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1747-1752.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.035

    Microstructure features of 12MnNiVR pressure vessel steel welded joint deposited by the high heat input electrogas welding have been systematically investigated. It is revealed that the welded joint is featured by a heterogeneous juxtaposition. The coarse grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) primarily consists of lath bainites and minor granular bainites. The fine grained heat-affected zone (FGHAZ) is dominated by polygonal ferrites, pearlites, and fine cementite particles. Moreover, electron backscatter diffraction results further demonstrate that the CGHAZ is populated by coarse prior austenite grains (PAGs) with high frequency (61.3%) of low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs). On the other hand, the FGHAZ is filled with fine PAGs with a lower frequency (19.6%) of LAGBs. Such microstructural differences may likely contribute to differed mechanical properties for samples tested at designed positions.

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    Kinetics and microstructural modeling of isothermal austenite-to-ferrite transformation in Fe-C-Mn-Si steels
    Song S.J., Che W.K., Zhang J.B., Huang L.K., Duan S.Y., Liu F.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1753-1766.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.04.010

    During the multi-stage processing of advanced high-strength steels, the austenite-to-ferrite transformation, generally as a precursor of the formation of other non-equilibrium or metastable structures, has a severe effect on the subsequent phase transformations. Herein, a more flexible kinetic and microstructural predictive modeling for the key austenite-to-ferrite transformation of Fe-C-Mn-Si steels was developed, in combination with the classical nucleation theory, the general mixed-mode growth model based on Gibbs energy balance, the microstructural path method and the kinetic framework for grain boundary nucleation. Adopting a bounded, extended matrix space corresponding to a single ferrite grain, both soft-impingement and hard-impingement can be naturally included in the current modeling. Accordingly, this model outputs the ferrite volume fraction, the austenite/ferrite interface area per unit volume, and the average grain size of ferrite, which will serve as the input parameters for modeling the subsequent bainite or martensite transformations. Applying the model, this work successfully predicts the experiment measurement of the isothermal austenite-to-ferrite transformation in Fe-0.17C-0.91Mn-1.03Si (wt%) steel at different temperatures and explains why the final-state average grain size of ferrite has a maximum at the moderate annealing temperature. Effectiveness and advantages of the present model are discussed arising from kinetics and thermodynamics accompanied with nucleation, growth and impingement.

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    Mechanical, tribological and anti-corrosive properties of polyaniline/graphene coated Mg-9Li-7Al-1Sn and Mg-9Li-5Al-3Sn-1Zn alloys
    Maurya Rita, Rahim Siddiqui Abdul, Kumar Katiyar Prvan, Balani Kantesh
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1767-1778.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.028

    The mechanical, tribological and corrosion protection offered to Mg-9Li-7Al-1Sn and Mg-9Li-5Al-3Sn-1Zn alloys by the epoxy coating containing polyaniline/graphene (PANI/Gr) pigments is undertaken in the current work. PANI/Gr containing coatings were observed to be strongly adherent with a higher scratch hardness (Hs) and plowing hardness (Hp), i.e. Hs of 0.43 GPa, and Hp of 0.61 GPa, respectively when compared to that of neat epoxy coating (Hs of 0.17 GPa, and Hp of 0.40 GPa, respectively). Due to their higher Hs and Hp values, PANI/Gr based coatings displayed an enhanced wear resistance (Wear volume, Wv = 4.53 × 10-3 m3) than that of neat epoxy coating (Wv = 5.15 × 10-3 m3). The corrosion protection efficiency in corrosive environment of 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was obtained to be >99% for PANI/Gr containing coatings when compared to that of neat epoxy coating. The charge-transfer resistance (Rct) of the PANI/Gr containing coatings were estimated to be >106 Ω cm2, which indicates their highly protective nature when compared to that of neat epoxy coating (Rct $\widetilde{1}$05 Ω cm2). Hence, PANI/Gr containing coatings can be potentially used for wear resistance and corrosion protection applications in marine environments.

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    Deformation-induced martensitic transformation kinetics and correlative micromechanical behavior of medium-Mn transformation-induced plasticity steel
    Zhang Minghe, Chen Haiyang, Wang Youkang, Wang Shengjie, Li Runguang, Li Shilei, Wang Yan-Dong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1779-1786.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.04.007

    An in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD) technique was mainly used to investigate the micromechanical behavior of medium-Mn Fe-0.12C-10.16Mn-1.87Al (in wt%) transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel subjected to intercritical annealing at 625 °C, 650 °C, 675 °C and 700 °C for 1 h. As the intercritical annealing temperature increased, the volume fraction of retained austenite (RA) and ultimate tensile stress (UTS) increased, while the Lüders strain and yield stress (YS) decreased. The incremental work-hardening exponent of experimental steel increased with increasing intercritical annealing temperature. The overall trend of the transformation kinetics of the RA with respect to the true strain followed the sigmoidal shape predicted by the Olson and Cohen (OC) model. Load partitioning occurred among the ferrite, austenite and martensite immediately after entering the yielding stage. Because the stability of the RA decreased with increasing intercritical annealing temperature, the load undertaken by the martensite increased. The moderate transformation kinetics of the RA and effective load partitioning among constituent phases were found to contribute to a favorable combination of strength and ductility for this medium-Mn TRIP steel.

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    Intergranular corrosion behavior and mechanism of the stabilized ultra-pure 430LX ferritic stainless steel
    Cheng Peize, Zhong Ning, Dai Nianwei, Wu Xuan, Li Jin, Jiang Yiming
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1787-1796.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.021

    Intergranular corrosion (IGC) behavior of the stabilized ultra-pure 430LX ferritic stainless steel (FSS) was investigated by using double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) and oxalic acid etch tests to measure the susceptibility of specimens given a two-step heat treatment. The results reveal that IGC occurs in the specimens aged at the temperature range of 600-750 °C for a short time. The aging time that is required to cause IGC decreases with the increase of aging temperature. A longer aging treatment can reduce the susceptibility to IGC. The microstructural observation shows that M23C6 precipitates form along the grain boundaries, leading to the formation of Cr-depleted zones. The presence of Cr-depleted zones results in the susceptibility to IGC. However, the atoms of stabilizing elements replace chromium atoms to form MC precipitates after long-time aging treatment, resulting in the chromium replenishment of Cr-depleted zones and the reduction of the susceptibility to IGC.

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    A new insight into promotion action of Co2+ in Ni-diamond composite electrodeposition
    Zhou Haifei, Du Nan, Guo Jingdong, Liu Shuan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1797-1802.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.019

    A new insight into the promotion action of Co2+ on both particle and metal deposition in Ni-diamond composite electrodeposition system was analyzed according to electrochemical measurements. The results showed that the addition of Co2+ made particles content in deposits increased remarkably. The change of particles content in deposits was related inversely to the change of cathodic zero potential with the increase of the concentration of cobalt sulfate. Zero charge potential of cathode was shifted to much more negative region. The negative shift of the zero potential, combining with positive shift of the zeta potential, increased the electrostatic force between the particle-adsorbed metallic cations and the cathode. It not only benefits to the transportation of particles in solution towards cathode, but also shortens their residence time on cathodic surface. Meanwhile, entry of particles is also promoted. For metals deposition, reduction resistance of metallic cations rises greatly and deposition current at cathodic potentiodynamic polarization decreases after cobalt sulfate has been added into electrolyte. These factors are favorable for increasing particles content in deposits. In addition, physical model of diamond particles deposition state before and after the addition of Co2+ has been discussed.

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    Micromechanism study on electronic and magnetic properties of silicene regulated by oxygen
    Ding Li-Ping, Shao Peng, Yang Lin-Tai, Guo Sun Wei, Zhang Fang-Hui, Lu Cheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol.. 2019, 35 (8): 1803-1808.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.03.032

    Silicene, a two-dimensional (2D) silicon counterpart of graphene with attractive electronic properties, has attracted increasing attention. Understanding of its interaction with oxygen is of fundamental importance for nano-electronics in silicon-based technology. Here, we have systematically studied the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of silicene with oxygen atoms adsorption by using an unbiased structure search method coupled with First-principles calculations. The results show that the most favorable oxygen adsorption site on silicene surface is bridge site and oxygen atoms tend to chemisorb on silicene. A detailed analysis of the electronic band structure and density of state (DOS) suggests that there is a band gap opening near Fermi level after oxygen adsorption, which lead to pristine silicene changing from a gapless semiconductor to a direct or indirect bandgap semiconductor. The important finding is that two and six oxygen atoms adsorbed silicene are more advantageous due to the relatively large direct band gaps at the K point. The calculated magnetic moments and spin density isosurfaces reveal that the total magnetic moments are mostly localized on silicene sheet. This finding provides new insights for further materials design based on two-dimensional silicon systems.

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